Ibn Taymiyya's Conception of Jihad: Corpus, General Aspects, and Research Perspectives

Main Article Content

Mehdi Berriah

Abstract

The question of jihad is fundamental to Ibn Taymiyya since he is one of the theologians of the Mamluk period—and probably of the entire medieval period—who wrote the most on this subject. Jihad was an essential part of the life of the famous theologian of Damascus, who took part in the Mamluk war effort as a volunteer in various expeditions. Over the last decades, scholars have been interested in the issue of jihad in Ibn Taymiyya and have highlighted several elements. These works have helped us learn more about the ideology of jihad in Ibn Taymiyya. However, it should be noted that those works focus on the jihad against a particular enemy (Mongols, heretics of the Kisrawān, Shi‘ites) in a particular context and do not deal much with Ibn Taymiyya’s general conception of jihad, for which several grey areas remain. This article will discuss Ibn Taymiyya and his general conception of jihad. My method is broken down into two steps to provide new elements and research perspectives. In the first instance, I will identify the maximum of Ibn Taymiyya’s writings and passages related to jihad, making the beginning of a type of inventory. Then I will analyze their content and cross-check them to bring to light general aspects of Ibn Taymiyya’s conception of jihad.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Berriah, Mehdi. “Ibn Taymiyya’s Conception of Jihad: Corpus, General Aspects, and Research Perspectives”. Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 12, no. 1 (June 3, 2022): 43–70. Accessed November 29, 2022. http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1864.
Section
Articles

References

Bazzār (al), Abū Ḥafṣ ‘Umar b. ‘Alī. al-A‘lām al-‘Aliyya fī Manāqib Shaykh al-Islām Ibn Taymiyya, ed. Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Munjid. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-Jadīd, 1976.

Berriah, Mehdi. “Combattre par la plume, le prêche et l’épée: les représentations du rôle des ulémas dans l’effort du jihad mamlouk (moitié viie/xiiie—début ixe/xive siècles),” in Sylvie Denoix and Salam Diab (eds.), Représentations et symbolique de la guerre et de la paix dans le monde arabe. 2022.

-----. “Mobility and Versatility of the ‘Ulama’ in the Mamluk Period: the Case of Ibn Taymiyya,” in Mohamad El-Merheb and Mehdi Berriah (eds.), Professional Mobility in Islamic Societies (700-1750): New Concepts and Approaches. Leyde: Brill, 2021.

-----. “The Mamluk Sultanate and the Mamluks Seen by Ibn Taymiyya: between Praise and Criticism,” Arabian Humanities 14, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/cy.6491.

Bonnefoy, Laurent. “Ibn Taymiyya, mauvais génie des djihadistes?,” Orient XXI, 2015. https://orientxxi.info/magazine/ibn-taymiyya-mauvais-genie-des-djihadistes,0872

Bonner, Michael. Le Jihad: Origines, Interprétations, Combats. Paris: Téraèdre, 2016.

Bori, Caterina. Ibn Taymiyya: una vita esemplare. Analisi delle fonti classichedella sua biografia, Supplemento monografico alla Rivista degli Studi Orientali 1/76. Roma-Pisa: Istituti Poligra ci Internazionali, 2003.

Bukhārī (al), Abū ‘Abd Allah Muḥammad b. Ismāīl b. Ibrāhīm b. al-Mughīrah b. Bardhūbah al-Ju‘fī. Ṣaḥīḥ, ḥadīth 278; 3404; 2372b; .

Cook, Michael. Commanding Right Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Da‘jānī (al), ‘Abd al-Allāh b. Nāfi‘. Manhaj Ibn Taymiyya al-Ma‘rifī: Qirā’a Taḥlīliyya li al-Nasq al-Ma‘rifī al-Taymī. London: Takween, 2014.

Ellethy, Yaser. “A Medieval Derelict Jihad Canon: Ibn Taymiya’s Qā‘ida Mukhtaṣara fī Qitāl al-Kuffār and the Ethics of Combating Non-Believers,” paper in the one-day international workshop, Jihad in Medieval Islam: Texts, Theories, and Practices (7th-14th), Ifao, Cairo, 11 October 2021.

Friedman, Yaron. “Ibn Taymiyya’s Fatāwā against the Nuṣayrī-‘Alawī Sect,” Der Islam 82, no. 2 (2005): 349-363; Yaron Friedman, The Nuṣayrī-‘Alawīs: An Introduction to the Religion, History and Identity of the Leading Minority in Syria. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

Hoover, Jon. “Foundations of Ibn Taymiyya’s Religious Utilitarianism,” in Philosophy and Jurisprudence in the Islamic World, ed. Peter Adamson. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2019.

-----. “Ibn Taymiyya between Moderation and Radicalism,” in A. Khan and E. Kendall (eds.), Reclaiming Islamic Tradition: Modern Interpretations of the Classical Heritage. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016.

-----. “Reconciling Ibn Taymiyya’s Legitimisation of Violence with His Vision of Universal Salvation,” in Robert Gleave and István Kristó-Nagy (eds.), Violence in Islamic Thought from the Mongols to European Imperialism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018.

-----. Ibn Taymiyya. London: Oneworld Academic, 2020.

Jansen, Johannes. The Neglected Duty: The Creed of Sadat’s Assassins and Islamic Resurgence in the Middle East. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

Laoust, Henri. “La Biographie d’Ibn Taymiyya d’après Ibn Kathīr,” Bulletin d’études orientale 10, 1943.

-----. Essai sur les Doctrines Sociales et Politiques d’Ibn Taimîya (661/1262-728/1328). Cairo: Ifao, 1939.

-----. Le Hanbalisme sous les Mamelouks Bahrides (658-784/1260-1382). Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1960.

Little, Donald. “Did Ibn Taymiyya Have a Screw Loose,” in Donald Little (ed.), History and Historiography of the Mamluks. London: Variorum, 1986.

Makdisi, George. L’Islam Hanbalisant. Paris: Geuthner, 1983.

Michot, Yahya and Stas, Lina. “Ibn Taymiyya’s Fatwa on Martial Arts Training,” The Muslim Word 108, no. 3, 2018.

Michot, Yahya. Ibn Tamiyya Against Extremisms. Beirut: Albouraq, 2012.

-----. Muslims under Non-Muslims Rule: Ibn Taymiyya. Oxford: Interface, 2006.

Mihula, Jabir Sani. “Analysis of Qā‘ida Mukhtaṣara fī Qitāl al-Kuffār wa Mudāhanatihim wa Taḥrīm Qatlihim bi-Mujarrad Kufrihim,” Saudi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 3, No. 9, 2018.

Morabia, Alfred. “Ibn Taymiyya, le Dernier Grand Théoricien du Gihad Médiéval,” Bulletin d’études Orientales 30, 1978.

Mourad, Suleiman and Lindsay, James. The Intensification and Reorientation of Sunni Jihad Ideology in the Crusader Period, Ibn ‘Asākir of Damascus (1105-1176) and His Age, with an Edition and Translation of Ibn ‘Asākir’s the Forty Hadiths for Inciting Jihad. Leyde/Boston: Brill, 2013.

-----. “Ibn ‘Asakir and the Intensification and Reorientation of Sunni Jihad Ideology in Crusader-Era Syria”, in Sohail Hashmi (ed.), Just Wars, Holy Wars & Jihads: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Encounters and Exchanges. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Naḥḥās, Ibn. Mashāri‘ al-Ashwāq ilā Maṣāri ‘al-‘Ushāq, ed. Idrīs Muḥammad ‘Alī and Muḥammad Khālid Isṭanbūlī. Beirut: Dār al-Bashā’ir al-Islāmiyya, 1984.

Qarḍāwī (al), Yūsuf. Fiqh al-Jihād: Dirāsa Muqārana li-Aḥkāmih wa Falsafatih fī Ḍaw’ al-Qur’ān wa al-Sunna. Cairo: Maktaba Wahba: 2010.

Sābiq, al-Sayyid. Fiqh al-Sunna. Cairo: Dār al-Fatḥ li I‘lām al-‘Arabī, 2009.

Salām (al), al-‘Izz b. ‘Abd. Aḥkām al-Jihād wa Faḍā’ilih, ed. Nazīh Ḥammād. Jeddah: Dār al-Wafā’, 1986.

Shaddād, Ibn. Tārīkh al-Mālik al-Ẓāhir, ed. Aḥmad Ḥuṭayṭ. Beirut: al-Ma‘had li al-Ab‘āth al-Sharqiyya, 1983.

Shajirī (al), Hādī Aḥmad Farḥān. al-Dirāsat al-Lughawiyya wa al-Naḥwiyya fī Mu’allafāt Shaykh al-Islām Ibn Taymiyya wa Atharuhā fī Isṭinbāṭ al-Aḥkām al-Shar‘iyya. Beirut: Dār al-Bashā’ir al-Islāmiyya, 2001.

Shams, Muḥammad ‘Azīz and ‘Imrān (al), ‘Alī b. Muḥammad. al-Jāmi‘ li-Ṣīrat Shaykh al-Islām Ibn Taymiyya khilāl Sab‘at Qurūn. Jeddah: Dār ‘Ālam al-Fawā’id, 1422/2001-2002.

Sivan, Emmanuel. Interpretations of Islam: Past and Present. Princeton: The Darwin Press, 1985.

Ṭabarī (al), Ibn Jarīr. Jāmi‘ al-Bayān fī Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān. Cairo: al-Maktaba al-Tawfīqiyya, 2004.

Taymiyya, Ibn. Al-‘Aqīda al-Wāsiṭiyya, ed. Ṣāliḥ b. Fawzān. Damascus/Riyadh: Dār al-Fayḥā’/Dār al-Salām, 1997.

-----. al-‘Ubūdiyya, ed. Fawāz Aḥmad Zamralī and Fārūq Ḥasan al-Turk. Beirut: Dār Ibn Ḥazm, 2012.

-----. al-Ḥisba fī al-Islām aw Waẓīfat al-Ḥukūma al-Islāmiyya, trans. Henri Laoust. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1984.

-----. al-Istiqāma, ed. Muḥammad Rashād Sālim. Riyadh: Dār al-Faḍīla, 2005.

-----. al-Jawāb al-Bāhir fī Zuwār al-Maqābir, ed. Ibrāhīm b. Khālid b. ‘Īsā al-Mukhlif. Riyadh: Dār al-Minhāj, 2012.

-----. al-Jihād, ed. A. ‘Umayra. Beirut: Dār al-Jayl, 1997.

-----. al-Risāla al-Qubruṣiyya, ed. Qaṣī Muḥibb al-Dīn. Cairo: Dār al-Maṭba‘a al-Salafiyya, 1974.

-----. al-Siyāsa al-Shar‘iyya fī Iṣlāḥ al-Rā‘ī wa al-Ra‘iyya, ed. Sa‘d b. al-Murshidī al-‘Atībī. Riyadh: Madār al-Waṭanī li al-Nashr, 2015.

-----. Iqtiḍā’ al-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm li-Mukhālafat Aṣḥāb al-Jaḥīm, ed. Nāṣir b. ‘Abd al-Karīm al-‘Aql. Riyadh: Dār al-Faḍīla, 2003.

-----. Majmū‘ al-Fatāwā, ed. ‘Āmir al Jazār and Anwār al Bāz. Beirut: Dār Ibn Ḥazm, 2011.

-----. Qā‘ida fī al-Inghimās fī al-‘Aduww wa hal Yubāḥ?, ed. Abū Muḥammad Ashraf b. ‘Abd al-Maqṣūd. Riyadh: Adwā’ al-Salaf, 2002.

-----. Qā‘ida fī al-Maḥabba, ed. Fawāz Aḥmad Zamralī. Beirut: Dār Ibn Ḥazm, 2011.

-----. Qā‘ida Mukhtaṣara fī Qitāl al-Kuffār wa Muhādanatihim wa Taḥrīm Qatlihim li-Mujarrad Kufrihim, ed. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz ‘Abd Allāh al-Zīr Āl Ḥamad. Riyadh: n.p., 2004.

‘Uqaylī, Ibrāhīm. Takāmul al-Manhaj al-Ma‘rifī ‘ind Ibn Taymiyya. Herndon: The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1994.

Ẓāhir (al), Ibn ‘Abd. al-Rawḍ al-Ẓāhir fī Ṣīrat al-Mālik al-Ẓāhir Baybars, ed. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz al-Khuwayṭir. Riyadh: n.p., 1976.

Zahra, Muḥammad Abū. Ibn Taymiyya: Ḥayātuh wa ‘Aṣruh wa Fiqhuh. Cairo: Dār al-Fikr al-‘Arabī, 1952.