A Critical Analysis of Imam Rabbani Ahmad Sirhindi’s Doctrines on Sufism

Main Article Content

Saeyd Rashed Hasan Chowdury
Vahit Göktaş

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to present an analysis of the teachings and ideals of the life and thought of Imam Rabbani Ahmad Sirhindi’s followers inspires the Muslims of the present world to pursue the path of truth, welfare, and justice. We tried to collect data from secondary sources and found that various superstitions entered Sufism when many non-Islamic issues permeated Islam. Imam Rabbani has made tireless efforts in writings and discourses through Sufism to return Islam to its original purity. He was awarded the title of “Reformer of the second millennium” because he first introduced Islamic thought in the history of the Indian subcontinent. On the other hand, Imam Rabbani taught the Waḥdat al-Shuhūd doctrine by criticizing the Waḥdat al-Wujūd doctrine introduced by Ibn ‘Arabī. As he continued the pure tradition of religion by subverting the superstitions of sharia in Islam, he established “Mujaddidiya Tariqa” in the spiritual world and coordinated the sharia-tariqa in Sufism. However, the outcome of our research shows how Imam Rabbani builds equality of status, love, and fraternity and instructs people through Sufism to respect the religion, emotions, and practices of others.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chowdury, Saeyd Rashed Hasan, and Vahit Göktaş. “A Critical Analysis of Imam Rabbani Ahmad Sirhindi’s Doctrines on Sufism”. Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 11, no. 1 (June 3, 2021): 93–121. Accessed September 22, 2021. http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1674.
Section
Articles

References

Abu Sa’id Nur al-Din, Wahdat al-Wujud and Falsafa Khudi. Karachi: Iqbal Review, 1962.

Affifi, A.E. The Mystical Philosophy of Muhyiddin ibn al-‘Arabi. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1939.

Afifi, Ebu’l-Alā. Muhyiddin İbn Arabī’nin Tasavvuf Felsefesi, trans. Mehmet Dağ. Ankara: AÜİFY, 1975.

Alam, Muzaffar. “The Mughals, the Sufi Shaikhs and the Formation of the Akbari Dispensation”, Modern Asian Studies 43, no. 1, 2009.

Alfi, Sajida. “The Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Sufi Order’s Ascendancy in Central Asia through the Eyes of its Own Masters and Disciples (17th to 19th Century)”, in Todd Lawson (ed.), Reason and Interpretation in Islam: Theology, Philosophy, and Mysticism in Muslim Thought. London: I. B. Tauris, 2005.

Amin, Muhammad Ruhul. Mujaddid-i Alfesani’s Reform Movement. Dhaka: Islamic Foundation Bangladesh, 1984.

Ansari, Abdul Haq. “Ibn ‘Arabī: the Doctrine of Waḥdat al-Wujūd”, Islamic Studies 38, no. 2, 1999.

Ansari, M. Abdul Haq. “The Life and Mission of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindî”, Islamic Culture 59, no. 2, 1985.

-----. Sufism and Shari’ah. London: Islamic Society, 1986.

Aslam, Muhammad. “Jehangir and Hadhrat Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi”, Journal of Asiatic Society of Pakistan, June 1, 1965.

-----. Din llahi aur Is Ka Pasmanzar. Delhi: Besturdubooks, 1969.

Aziz, A.F.M. Abdul and Khan, Siddique Ahmed. Hazrat Mujaddid Alfe Sani. Dhaka: Islamic Foundation Bangladesh, 2001.

Aziz, Ahmad. Hind wa Pak Main Islami Culture. Delhi: Islamic Cultural Society, 1991.

Bilgin, İbrahim Ethem. Devrimci Sūfī Haraketleri ve İmam-i Rabbānī. İstanbul: Kültür Basın Yayın Birliği, 1989.

Bisati, Afroz Ahmad. Sheıkh Ahmad Sırhındı’s Thought and its Impact on The Development of Sufısm. Srinagar: Shah-i-Hamdan Institute of Islamic Studies The University of Kashmir press, 2001.

Buehler, Arthur F. “Aḥmad Sirhindī: A 21st Century Update”, Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 86, no. 1, 2011.

-----. “The Naqshabandiyya in Tīmūrid India: the Central Asian Legacy”, Journal of Islamic Studies 7, no. 2, 1996.

-----. Revealed Grace: The Juristic Sufism of Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624). Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 2011.

-----. “Sharī‘at and ‘Ulamā in Ahmad Sirhindī’s Collected Letters”, Die Welt des Islams 43, no. 3, 2003.

Bukhārī (al), Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad b. Ismā’īl. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, Ḥadīth No. 2697. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 2003.

Cebeceoğlu, Ethem. Tasavvuf Tarihi: İmam-i Rabbānī ve Vahdet-i Şuhūd Anlayışı. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Uzak Tan Eğitim Yayınları, 2013.

Cebecioğlu, Ethem. İmam-i Rabbani Hareketi ve Tesirleri. İstanbul: Erkam Yayınları, 1999.

Chowdury, Saeyd Raashed Hasan. “Bangladeş’te Tasavvuf Kültürü ve Temsilcileri”, in Ahmet Cahid Haksever, Tematik Tasavvuf Toplantıları Fikriyat Kişiler Kurumlar, Vol. 2. Ankara: Sonçağ, 2019.

Chowdury, Saeyd Rashed Hasan. “Bangladeş’te Tasavvufun ve Tarikatların Değerlendirilmesi, Sosyal Gelişimleri ve Oynadıkları rol: Yirmi Birinci Yüzyılda bir vak’a Incelemesi”. Ankara: Ankara University, 2019.

Faruqi, Abdul Shakoor. Imam Rabbani: al-Furqan-Mujddid Alf Thani. Lucknow: Academia, 1961.

Faruqi, Burhan Ahmad. The Mujaddid’s Conception of Tawhid. Delhi: Nabu Press, 1977.

Foster, William. Early Travels in India. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1921.

Friedmann, Yohanan and Haar, J. G. J. Ter. “Follower and Heir of the Prophet: Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindī (1564-1624) as Mystic”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 114, no. 3, 1994.

Göktaş, Vahit and Chowdury, Saeyd Rashed Hasan. “Freedom of Religion, Faith and Religious Tolerance in Bangladesh: A Case Study on the Islamic Mysticism”, Disiplinlerarası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 5, 2019.

Hermansen, Marcia and Buehler, Arthur F. “Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: The Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 120, no. 1, 2000.

Hossain, Mohammad Israfil. Mujaddide Alfe Sunny Rahimahullah Talks about Life. Dhaka: Alqur’anerpath, 2019.

Iqbal, Allama Muhammad. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. Delhi: Adam Publishers, 2001.

Kha, Muhammad Akram. Muslim Bonger Samajik Itihas. Oitijjo Prokashoni, Dhaka 2002.

Khan, Irfan M. “Recentering the Sufi Shrine: A Metaphysics of Presence”. PhD diss., Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, 2019.

Khan, Kabir. “A Short Bibliography of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi”, The Muslim World Book Review 12, no. 2, 1992.

Kishmi, Muhammad Hashim. Zubdat al-Maqāmāt. Kanpur: Aligarh Muslim University, 1980.

Kontho, Kaler. Mujaddede Alfe Sani (rh): Songskar Andoloner Kirtiman Mohapurush. Dhaka: Daily Kaler Kantho Newspaper, 2014.

Landau, Rom. The Philosophy of Ibn al-‘Arabi. London: Academy, 1959.

Mehta, Nowroze Cooverji. The Religious Policy of Akbar. Delhi: Otichco Prokahsoni, 1966.

Nodovi, Masud Alam. Upmohadeshe Islami Andoloner Itihas. Dhaka: Sotabdi Prokashoni, 2002.

Qambar, Akhtar. “Fundamentalism or a Return to Fundamentals? A Study of Naqashbandi Tariqa”, Islam and the Modern Age XX, no. 2, 1989.

Rashid, Mamunur. Biography of Hazrat Mojadded Alfesani. Dhaka: Dharmapurdarbar, 2018.

Ross, Denison and Power, Eileen. Akbar and the Jesuits, trans. C.H. Payne. Delhi: De Gruyter, 1979.

Roychoudhary, M.L. Din-i-Ilahi (The Religion of Akbar). Delhi: Tezpur University, 1985.

Sani, Hazrat Mujaddede Alfe. Maarife Ladunniya. Narayangonj: Mujaddediya Kutubkhana, 2012.

Siddique, A. F. M. Abu Bakar. Din-i-Ilahi o Mujaddid Alfe Sani (r). Dhaka: Islamic Foundation Bangladesh, 1991.

Siddiqui, KS. Mojaddedde Alfesani (Rah.) and Emperor Jahangir. Dhaka: Dailyinqilab Newspaper, 2016.

Sidiqui, Muhammad Yasin Mazhar. “The Role of ‘Ulama in the Spread of Islam in the Indo-Pak Sub-Continent-A Critical Appraisal”, Journal of Objective Studies 3, no. 1, 1991.

Sijistānī (al), Abū Dāwud Sulaymān b. al-Ash‘ath b. Isḥāq al-Azdī. Sunan Abī Dāwud, “Kitāb al-Malāhim”, Vol. 4. Egypt: Maktaba Sharika and Maktabat al-Muṣtafā, 1952.

Sirhindi, Sheikh Ahmad. Ma‘ārif-i Ledünniyye. Karachi: Iqbal Review, 1388/1968.

-----. Risāla Taḥlīliyya (Arabic text with Urdu tr., Dr. Gh. Mustafa Khan). Karachi: Iqbal Review, 1965.

-----. Sharḥ-i-Rubā‘iyat (Persian text with Urdu tr., Dr. Gh. Mustafa Khan). Karachi: Iqbal Review, 1966.

Sunar, Cavit. Vahdet-i Şuhūd-Vahdet-i Vücūd Mes’elesi. Ankara: Anadolu Aydinlanma Vakfi Yay, 1960.

Tosun, Necdet. “İmām-i Rabbānī (K.S.)’nin Tasavvufī Görüşleri Tasavvuf Yoluna Giriş Ve Zikir”, Somuncu Baba Dergisi 239, 2009.

-----. İmam-i Rabbani Ahmed Sirhindi. İstanbul: Insan Yayınları, 2005.

Valiuddin, Mir. “Reconciliation between Ibn al-‘Arabi’s Wahdat -i- Wujud and the Mujaddid’s Wahdat -i- Shuhud”, Islamic Culture 25, no. 1-4, 1951.

Voll, John O. “Renewal and Reform in Islamic History: Tajdid and Islah,” Voices of Resurgent Islam, 1983.

Weismann, Itzchak. “Indian Roots of Modern Islamic Revivalism”, Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 36, no. 4, 2013.