Dialogue with The Master: Early Shī‘a Encounters with Akbarīan Mysticism

Main Article Content

Leila Chamankhah

Abstract

Muḥy al-Dīn Ibn ‘Arabī’s theoretical mysticism has been the subject of lively discussion among Iranian Sufis since they first encountered it in the seventh century. ‘Abdul Razzāq Kāshānī was the pioneer and forerunner of the debate, followed by reading and interpreting al-Shaykh al-Akbar’s key texts, particularly Fuū al-ikam (Bezels of Wisdom) by future generations of Shī‘ī scholars. Along with commentaries and glosses on his works, every element of ibn ‘Arabī’s mysticism, from his theory of the oneness of existence (wadat al-wujūd) to his doctrines of nubuwwa, wilāya, and khatm al-wilāya, was accepted by his Shī‘ī peers, incorporated into their context and adjusted to Shī‘a doctrinal platform. This process of internalization and amalgamation was so complete that after seven centuries, it is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish between Ibn ‘Arabī’s theory of wadat al-wujūd, or his doctrines of wilāya and khatm al-wilāya and those of his Shī‘ī readers. To have a clearer picture of the philosophical and mystical activities and interests of Shī‘ī scholars in Iran under Ilkhanids (1256-1353), I examined the intellectual and historical contexts of seventh century Iran. The findings of my research are indicative of the contribution of mystics such as ‘Abdul Razzāq Kāshānī to both the school of Ibn ‘Arabī in general and of Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī in particular on the one hand, and to the correlation between Sufism and Shī‘īsm on the other. What I call the ‘Shī‘ītization of Akbarīan Mysticism’ started with Kāshānī and can be regarded as a new chapter in the history of Iranian Sufism.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chamankhah, Leila. “Dialogue With The Master: Early Shī‘a Encounters With Akbarīan Mysticism”. TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 10, no. 1 (June 1, 2020): 50-73. Accessed October 27, 2020. http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1503.
Section
Articles

References

‘Alāqah, Fāṭemeh. “Murūrī bar Fityān wa Futuwwat Nāmihā: A Review on Chivalrous and Books of Chivalry”, Farhang, No. 25-26, Spring and Summer 1377 Shamsī/1999.
Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali. The Divine Guide in Early Shiism: the Sources of Esotericism in Islam, translated into English by David Streight. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
-----. The Spirituality of Shii Islam: Beliefs and Practices. London and New York: I. B. Tauris Publisher, 2011.
Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. “Sufis and Shamans: Some Remarks on the Islamization of the Monglos in the Ilkhanate”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (JESHO), Leiden, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1999.
Āmulī, Ḥaydar. Jāmi‘ al-Asrār wa Manba‘ al-Anwār (the Comprehensive of Mysteries and the Source of Lights), translated into Persian by Muḥammad Riḍā Jūzī. Tehran: Hermes, 1391.
‘Arabī, Muḥy al-Dīn Ibn. Tafsīr Ibn ‘Arabī (Ta’wīlāt ‘Abdul Razzāq), edited and annotated by Samīr Muṣṭafā Rabāb. Beirut: Dār al-Iḥyā al-Turāth al-‘Arabī, 2000.
Chamankhah, Leila. The Conceptualization of Guardianship in Iranian Intellectual History (1800-1989): Reading Ibn ‘Arabī’s Theory of Wilāya in the Shī‘a World, Chapter 5. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.
Chittick, William. “The Five Divine Presences: From al-Qūnawī to al-Qayṣarī”, The Muslim World, Vol 72, Issue 2, April 1982.
Dagli, Caner K. Ibn ‘Arabī and Islamic Intellectual Culture: from Mysticism to Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge Sufi Series, 2016.
Dāwarī, Maḥmūd Taqī Zādih. Sunat-i ‘Azādārī wa Manqibat Khānī dar Tārikh-i Shī‘a-yi Emāmīya (The Lamentation Tradition and Mourning in the History of the Imāmī Shī‘īsm). Qum: Shī‘a Shināsī, 1386 Shamsi.
Ebstein, Michael. “The Organs of God: Ḥadīth al-Nawāfil in Classical Islamic Mysticism”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 138, No. 2, 2018.
Grayling, A. C. (ed.). Philosophy 1: A Guide through the Subject. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Imāmī, Alī Ashraf. “Nigāhī bi Iṣṭilāḥāt-i Ṣūfīya-i Shaykh ʿAbdul Razzāq Kāshānī: A Glimpse at Kāshānī’s Lexicon of the Sufi Terminology”, Majalla-yi Dānishkada-yi ʿUlūm-i Insānī, No. 1, Spring 1381 Shamsī/2001.
Karamustafa, Ahmet T. Sufism: the Formative Period. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007).
Kāshānī, ‘Abdul Razzāq. Rasā’il-i Falsafī wa ‘Irfānī (Philosophical and Mystical Treatises). n.d, n.p.
Kāshānī, Kamāl al-Dīn ‘Abdul Razzāq. Sharḥ-i Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam (Commentary on the Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam) Majīd Hādīzādih (ed.) (Tehran: Anjuman-i Āthār wa Mafākhir-i Farhangī, 2004.
-----. Sharḥ-i Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam, Majīd Hādīzādih (ed.). Tehran: Anjuman-i Āthār wa Mafākhir-i Farhangī, 1383 shamsī.
-----. Sharḥ-i Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam; Mu‘jam Iṣṭilāḥāt al-Ṣūfīya (Lexicon of the Sufi Terminology), ‘Abd ʿĀl Shāhīn (ed.). Cairo: Dār al-Manār, 1343 H/ 1992.
-----. Ta’wīlāt al-Qur’ān Ḥakīm, Samīr Muṣṭafā Rabāb (ed), Vol. 1. Beirut: Dār al-Iḥyā al-Turāth al-‘Arabī, 2000.
-----. Ta’wīlāt Qurʾān Karīm (Tafsīr-i Ibn ‘Arabī), translated into Persian: Seyyed Jawād Hāshimī ʿUlyā, Mahnāz Raʾīs Zādih. Tehran: Mawlā, 1393 shamsī.
Lala, Ismail. Knowing God: Ibn ‘Arabī and ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī’s Metaphysics of the Divine. Leiden and Boston: 2019.
Lory, Pierre. “Eschatology and Hermeneutics in Kāshānī’s Ta’wīlāt al-Qur’ān”, in Annabel Keeler and Sajjad Rizvi (eds.), the Spirit and the Letter: Approaches of the Esoteric Interpretation of the Quran. Oxford: Oxford University Press in Association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2016.
Macdonald, D. B. “ABD al-Razzak Kashani”, The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I, A-B. Leiden and London: Brill, 1960.
Masterton, Rebecca. “A Comparative Exploration of the Spiritual Authority of the Awliyā’ in the Shi‘i and Sufi Traditions”, American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2015.
Maẓāhirī, ‘Abdul Ridhā. Ta‘līqahāy-i Shī‘a bar Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam-i Ibn ‘Arabī (Shī‘a Commentaries on Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam of Ibn ‘Arabī”, Māhnāma-yi Pazhūhishī-yi Iṭṭilā‘āt-i Ḥikmat wa Ma‘rifat, No. 1, 1387 Shamsī/2008.
Momen, Moojan. Shi‘i Islam: A Beginner’s Guide. London: Oneworld, 2016.
Morris, James W. “Ibn Arabî and His Interpreters, Part II-A”, Journal of American Oriental Society (JAOS), Vol. 106, 1986.
-----. “Ibn Arabî and His Interpreters, Part II-B”, Journal of American Oriental Society (JAOS), Vol. 107, 1987.
Murata, Sachiko. The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought, Foreword by Annemarie Schimmel. New York: State University of New York Press, 1992.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein and Others (eds.). the Study Quran: a New Translation and Commentary. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2015.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Sufi Essays. New York: Schocken Books, 1977.
Nettler, Ronald L. Sufi Metaphysics and Qur’anic Prophets: Ibn Arabi’s Thought and Method in the Fusus al-Hikam. Cambridge: the Islamic Texts Society, 2003.
Pāzūkī, Shahrām. Jāmi‘ al-Asrār: Jāmi‘ bayn Taṣawwuf wa Tashayu‘, in Muṣṭafā Azmāyish (ed.), ‘Irfān-i Iran (Iranian Mysticism), No. 7, Tehran: Ḥaqīqat Publication, , 1379 shamsī.
Pfeiffer, Judith. “Conversion Versions: Sultan Öljeytü’s Conversion to Shi‘ism (709/1309) in Muslim Narrative Sources”, Mongolian Studies, Vol. 22, 1999.
Radtke, Bernd. “Between Projection and Suppression: Some Considerations Concerning the Study of Sufism”, in Frederick De Jong (ed.), Shi‘a Islam, Sects and Sufism, Historical Dimensions, Religious Practice, and Methodological Considerations. Utrecht: Publications of the M. Th. Houtsma Stichting, 1992.
Shabistarī, Maḥmūd b. ‘Abd al-Karīm. Gulshan-i Rāz (the Rose Garden of Mystery), Muḥammad Ḥimāṣīyān (ed.). Kerman: Khadamāt-i Farhangī-ya Kerman, 2003.
Shaikh, Sa’diyya. Sufi Narratives of Intimacy: Ibn ‘Arabī, Gender and Sexuality. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
Shaybī (al), Kāmil Muṣṭafā. al-Ṣilah bayn al-Taṣawwuf wa al-Tashayu‘, 2 volumes, 3rd edition. Beirut: Dār al-Andalus, 1982.
-----. Sufism and Shī‘īsm. Surbiton: LAAM, 1991.
Takeshita, Masataka. “Ibn Arabi’s Theory of the Perfect Man and Its Place in the History of Islamic Thought”. Ph.D. Thesis--University of Chicago, 1986.
Tayefeh, Fatemeh. “Concept of Chivalry (Futuwwah) According to ‘Abdul Razzāq Kāshānī: Analysis on His Tuḥfat ul-Ikhwān fī Khaṣāiṣ al-Fityān (Brethren Trove in Chivalry). Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, 2015.
Tucker, William F. The Kufan Ghulat and Millenarian (Mahdist) Movements in Mongol-Turkmen Iran, in Unity in Diversity: Mysticism, Messianism, and the Construction of Religious Authority in Islam, Orkhan Mir-Kasimov (ed.). Leiden: Brill, 2014.
Zarrīnkūb, ‘Abdul Ḥussein. Dunbāla-yi Justujū dar Taṣawwuf-i Iran (Sequel to Inquiries into Persian Sufism), 5th edition. Tehran: Amīr Kabīr Publication, 2001.