Revealing the Sanctity of the Eternal Cosmic Hierarchy: A Comparative Analysis of Javanese Mysticism and Islamic Sufism

Main Article Content

Waryani Fajar Riyanto

Abstract

Most religious cosmology studies focus on the microcosm and macrocosm; however, the origin of cosmic mysticism is the eternal cosmos extensively studied in cultures and religions such as Javanese and Islam. This study aimed to examine the different interpretations of the sanctity of the eternal cosmos hierarchy in Javanese mysticism and Islamic Sufism. The eternal cosmos is referred to as jagad langgeng and ‘ālam akbar in Javanese mysticism and Islamic Sufism, respectively. This qualitative study conducted document reviews to obtain primary and secondary data analyzed through comparative analysis. This study aimed to examine the concept of the five eternal cosmos hierarchies of the absolute universe, lordness universe, transcendent universe, celestial universe, and terrestrial universe. The findings reinforce the concept of cosmic spirituality, divine cosmology, and wisdom of cosmology as well as theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, the study contributes to the integration of sacred Javanese Islamic, and Western cosmologies and the clarification of the eternal and temporary cosmos in theological discussions. The findings also have practical implications in creating eco-leadership based on hasta brata values.  

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Riyanto, Waryani Fajar. “Revealing the Sanctity of the Eternal Cosmic Hierarchy: A Comparative Analysis of Javanese Mysticism and Islamic Sufism”. Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 13, no. 2 (December 1, 2023): 232–260. Accessed April 13, 2024. https://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/2468.
Section
Articles

References

Almirzanah, Syafaatun. “God, Humanity and Nature: Cosmology in Islamic Spirituality,’’ HTS Theological Studies 76, no. 1, a6130, 2020.

Anas, Moh. “Kritik Hossein Nasr atas Problem Sains dan Modernitas dalam Kalam,” Jurnal Studi Agama dan Pemikiran Islam 6, no. 1, 2012.

Anguita, Gracia López. “Ibn ‘Arabī’s Metaphysics in the Context of Andalusian Mysticism: Some Akbarian Concepts in the Light of Ibn Masarra and Ibn Barrajān,’’ Religions 12, no. 1, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12010040.

‘Arabī, Ibn. “al-Tadbīrat al-Ilāhīyah fī Iṣlāḥ al-Mamlakah al-Insānīyah,” in Kleinere Schriften des Ibn al-‘Arabī, ed. by H.S. Nyberg. Leiden: Brill, 1919.

-----. “Syajarat al-Kaun,” in Bibliotheca Alexandrina, ed. by Riyadh Abdullah. Kairo: Alexandria Press, 1985.

-----. al-Futūḥāt al-Makkīyah, vol. 4, ed. by Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīyah, 2011.

-----. Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam, ed. by Asim Ibrāhīm al-Kayyalī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīyah, 2009.

Asy’arie, Musa. Filsafat Islam: Sunnah Nabi dalam Berpikir. Yogyakarta: LESFI, 1999.

Bāqir, Mohammad. Sharḥ Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam. Jakarta: Paramadina, 2015.

Blackburn, Simon. Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Bowen, Glenn. “Document Analysis as A Qualitative Research Method,’’ Qualitative Research Journal 9, no. 2, 2009.

Bunnin, Nicholas and Jiyuan Yu. The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing, 2004.

Burckhardt, Titus. “Cosmology, and Modern Science,” in The Sword of Gnosis: Metaphysics, ed. by Jacob Needleman. London: Arkana, 1986.

-----. Mystical Astrology According to Ibn ‘Arabī, ed. by Bulent Rauf. England: Beshara Publications, 1977.

Capra, Fritjof. The Turning Point: Science, Society and the Rising Culture. New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 60.

-----. The Hidden Connections. London: Flamengo, 2003.

-----. The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. London: Flamengo, 1997.

Chittick, William C. The Sufi Path of Knowledge: The Supreme of Barzakh. London: Bantam Books, 1997.

Christofidou, Andrea. “Descartes, Dualism versus Behaviourism,” Behavior and Philosophy 46, no. 1, 2018.

Darraz, Muhammad Abdullah. Alam Sebagai Manusia Besar: Eko-Kosmologi Islam dalam Rasail Ikhwān al-Ṣafā. Jakarta: Paramadina, 2012.

Dunja, Rašić. “Music of the Spheres in Akbarian Sufism,” Religions 13, no. 10, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13100928.

Endraswara, S. “Memayu Hayuning Bawana dalam Perspektif Ekoantropologi Sastra,” Susastra: Jurnal Ilmu Sastra dan Budaya 6, no. 1, 2017.

Fakhry, M. A History of Islamic Philosophy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

Frautschi, Steven С. The Mechanical Universe Mechanics and Heat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Giani, Zappala. “Cultivating Spiritual Intelligence for A Participatory Worldview: The Contribution of Archetypal Cosmology,” Journal for the Study of Spirituality 11, no. 2, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/20440243.2021.1961463.

Gidley, Jennifer M. Spiritual Epistemologies and Integral Cosmologies: Transforming Thinking and Culture. London: Peter Lang Publishing, 2006.

Gilkey, Langdon. Nature, Reality, and the Sacred the Nexus of Science and Religion. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1993.

Hamim, Muhammad. “Korelasi antara Hasta Brata dan Islamic Leadership,” Ulul Albab 15, no. 1, 2014.

Heriyanto. “Filsafat Holisme-Ekologis: Salah Satu Paradigma Post-Positivisme,” Tesis,. Universitas Indonesia, 2019.

Hussaini, Sara Haq. Beyond Binary Barzakhs: Using the Theme of Liminality in Islamic Thought to Question the Gender Binary. George Mason University, America, 2012.

Iswahyudi. “Cosmology and Social Stratification of the Madurese Population in the XIX Century,’’ Cogent Arts & Humanities 9, no. 2, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311983.2022.2104798.

Jaeger, Gregg. “Clockwork Rebooted: Is the Universe A Computer?,” Springer Nature 1, no. 2, 2018.

Jin, Shunhua. “Representing and Experiencing Islamic Domes: Images, Cosmology, and Circumambulation,’’ Religions 13, no. 6, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13060526.

Kattsoff, L. Pengantar Filsafat, ed. by S. Soemargono. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana, 1996.

Kemp, Martin. “Cartesian Contrivances,” Nature 394, no. 2, 1998.

Kiashemshaki, Abulfazel. “The Universal Degrees (Marātib), Manifestations (Maẓāhir) and Divine Presences (Hadarat) of the Existences in Ibn Arabi’s School of Mysticism,’’ Kanz Philosophia: A Journal for Philosophy, Mysticism, and Religious Studies 1, no. 1, 2011.

Lajnah Pentashihan Mushaf al-Qur’an Badan Litbang dan Diklat Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia dengan Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI), Penciptaan Bumi dalam Perspektif Al-Qur’an dan Sains. Jakarta: Lajnah Pentashihan Mushaf al-Qur’an, 2010.

Lings, Martin. The Book of Certainty the Sufi Doctrine of Faith, Vision, and Gnosis. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society, 1996.

Lutfillah, N.Q. “Konstruksi Tanggung Jawab Auditor Perspektif Mamayu Hayuning Bawana,” Jurnal Akuntansi Multiparadigma 7, no. 1, 2016.

Magnis-Suseno, Franz. Etika Jawa: Sebuah Analisa Falsafi tentang Kebijaksanaan Hidup Jawa. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1993.

Mahzar, Armahedi. Integralisme: Sebuah Rekonstruksi Filsafat Islam. Bandung: Penerbit Pustaka, 1983.

-----. Merumuskan Paradigma Sains dan Teknologi Islami: Revolusi Integralisme Islam. Bandung: Mizan, 2006.

Mertowardojo, Raden Soenarto. Sasangka Jati: Reden Tumenggung Hardjoprakoso, ed. by Raden Trihardono Soemodihardjo. Yogyakarta: Paguyuban Ngesti Tunggal Press, 2014.

Moresco, Michele et al. “Unveiling the Universe with Emerging Cosmological Probes,” Living Reviews in Relativity 25, no. 6, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41114-022-00040-z.

Moser, Keith. “(Re)-Discovering the Sacred in the Material Universe: An Exploration of Cosmic Spirituality in the Works of Malcolm de Chazal and Michel Serres,” French Cultural Studies 27, no. 4, 2016.

Mulder, Niels. Mistisisme Jawa. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2001.

-----. Pribadi dan Masyarakat Jawa. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1996.

Murata, Sachiko. The Tao of Islam, ed. by Rahmani Asturi and M.S. Nasrullah. Bandung: Mizan, 1997.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Man and Nature: The Spiritual Crisis in Modern Man. Chicago: ABC International Group. Inc, 1997.

-----. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines: Conceptions of Nature and Methods Used for Its Study by the Ikhwān al-Ṣafā. Cambridge: al-Biruni, and Ibn Sina, The Belknap Press, 1964.

-----. Islamic Spirituality Foundation. New York: State University of New York Press, 2002.

-----. Knowledge and the Sacred. New York: State University of New York Press, 1989.

-----. Three Muslim Sages. New York: Caravan Books, 1964.

Netton, Ian Richard. Allah Transcendent: Studies in the Structure and Semiotics of Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Cosmology. London: Published by Routledge, 1989.

Nurcholish Madjid, Islam Doktrin dan Peradaban. Jakarta: Paramadina, 1992.

Nursī, Sa‘īd. al-Lam‘āt. Turkey: Nursi Society, 2014.

Pamungkas, Onok Y. “Javanese Cosmology: Symbolic Transformation of Names in Javanese Novels,’’ HTS Theological Studies 77, no. 4, a6593, 2022.

Pitana, Titis S. “Reproduksi Simbolik Arsitektur Tradisional Jawa: Memahami Ruang Hidup Material Manusia Jawa,” Jurnal Gema Teknik 2, no. 1, 2007.

Proudfoot, Michael and A.R. Lacey, The Routledge Dictionary of Philosophy. London, and New York: Routledge, 2010.

Qayṣarī, Dāwūd bin Maḥmūd. Maṭla‘ Khuṣūṣ al-Kalim fī Ma‘ānī Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub ‘Ilmīyah, 2012.

Rahayu, Mella Ismelina Farma. “Religious Cosmology Indonesian Legal Studies: Basic Philosophical Understanding of Indonesian Law Based on Wisdom,” Review of International Geographical Education 11, no. 8, 2021.

Ṣafā (al), Ikhwān. Rasāil Ikhwān al-Ṣafā, vol. 2. Beirut: Dār al-Islāmiyyah, 1992.

Sagan, Carl. Cosmos. New York: Random House, 1996.

Schuon, F. Dimensions of Islam. London: Allen & Unwin, 1970.

Seta, Turangga. Jagad Gumelar. Yogyakarta: Turangga Seta Press, 2009.

Simuh. Sufisme Jawa: Transformasi Tasawuf Islam ke Mistik Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Bentang Budaya, 1999.

Smith, Bradon T.L. “Indeterministic Metaphors: The Popular Science Books of Fritjof Capra and Gary Zukav,” Public Understanding of Science 22, no. 5, 2013. DOI: 10.1177/0963662512473727.

Sotillos, Samuel Bendeck. “Siena, City of the Virgin: Illustrated by Titus Burckhardt’,’ Studia Gilsoniana 10, no. 2, 2021.

-----. “The Eclipse of the Soul and the Rise of the Ecological Crisis,” Spirituality Studies 8, no. 2, 2022.

Suyūṭī (al), Jalāl al-Dīn. al-Raḥmah fī al-Ṭibb wa al-Ḥikmah. Kairo: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Arabīyah al-Kubrā, 1977.

Ṭabāṭabā’ī (al), Muḥammad Ḥusayn. Tafsīr al-Mīzān fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, vol. 7. Beirut: Ḥuqūq al-Ṭibā‘ah wa al-Taqlīd Maḥfūẓah wa Masajjalah li al-Nāshir, 1973.

Taufiqurrahman. “The Divinity Cosmological Model of Ibn ‘Arabi: The Relations between Mystical and Logic,” Jurnal Fuaduna: Jurnal Kajian Keagamaan dan Kemasyarakatan 5, no. 1, 2021. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30983/fuaduna.v5i1.4164.

Tustarī (al), Sahl. Tafsīr al-Tustarī, translated by Annabel Keeler and Ali Keeler. Jordan: n.p., 2011.

Waston. “Building Peace through Mystic Philosophy: Study on the Role of Sunan Kalijaga in Java,” Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies 8, no. 2, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v8i2.281-308.

Winter, Tim (ed.). Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Wulandari, Tri. “Konsep Tribuana/Triloka pada Ornamen Relief Kalpataru di Kompleks Candi Prambanan Sebagai Ide Penciptaan Karya Kriya Seni,” Corak Jurnal Seni Kriya 4, no. 1, 2015.

Wyatt, N. The Mythic Mind: Essays on Cosmology and Religion in Ugaritic and Old Testament Literature. London: Equinox Publishing Ltd, 2005.