TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam Aqidah and Islamic Philosophy Study Program, Faculty of Ushuluddin and Philosophy, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University Surabaya. en-US TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 2088-7957 Rethinking The Contemporary Discourse of Jihād http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1281 <p>This article purposes to evaluate the phenomenon of domination of combative jihadism and factors that have conditioned the domination. It also evaluates whether the dominant concept of <em>jihād</em> can be paralleled to the Western concept of “just war”. It can be argued that normatively Islam recognises two forms of <em>jihād </em>namely the greater <em>jihād</em> (self-purification and improvement) and the lesser <em>jihād</em> (combative war). Historically, the contemporary discourse of <em>jihād</em> has been dominated by its combative meaning, however. This domination has been conditioned by several factors, such as the growth of the ideology of radical Islamism, the Western hegemonic behaviour, globalisation and the absence of alternative narratives. This article finds that, furthermore, the dominant concept of <em>jihād</em>, in a legalistic view, is relatively similar to the Western concept of <em>just war</em>, although, in reality, it tends to be illegal or “breaking the law”. It discusses the normative and historical meanings of <em>jihād</em>, the factors that have been conditioning the domination of combative jihadism, and <em>jihād</em> and <em>just war</em>.</p> Hasnan Bachtiar Luciana Anggraeni Muhammad Asep Copyright (c) 2019 Hasnan Bachtiar, Luciana Anggraeni, Muhammad Asep http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 306 325 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.1.306-325 Intellectual Network of Mandailing and Haramayn Muslim Scholars in the Mid-19th and Early 20th Century http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1241 <p>This paper is an attempt to study the scholars’ network of Mandailing Ulama with those of Haramayn in the mid-19<sup>th</sup>&nbsp; and early 20<sup>th</sup> century. Employing the content analysis method the research finds that the Mandailing scholars had made an intellectual encounter with the scholars in Haramayn, even some of the established networks with Egyptian and Indian scholars. The Mandailing scholars connote those who ethnically originated from Mandailing clan and data reveals that Mandailing scholars come from the residencies of Tapanuli and East Sumatera, both of which are parts of the modern era North Sumatera province. This not to deny that some of the Mandailing scholars were also born in Makkah. From the aspect of the duration of the study, some scholars studied religion intensively and settled in Makkah, while others only learned the Islamic religion by meeting the scholars of Makkah only during the Hajj period. The last group of scholars only studied religion intensely in Nusantara, but while performing hajj they met the scholars and learned religion in very limited time. Mandailing scholars studied Islamic sciences, especially Quranic exegeses, hadīth, and Sufism to a number of such scholars from Arab and Nusantara as Ahmad Khatib al-Minangkabawi, ‘Abd al-Qadir b. Shabir al-Mandili (Nasution) and Hasan Masysyath. Ideologically, they studied Islamic sciences in the context of the Sunnī school of thought, especially Ash‘arīyah and Shāfi‘īyah. This study then fills the gap of the study of other researchers about the Nusantara Ulama Network with Middle Eastern scholars.</p> Mhd. Syahnan Asrul Asrul Ja'far Ja'far Copyright (c) 2019 Mhd. Syahnan, Asrul Asrul, Ja'far Ja'far http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 257 281 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.2.257-281 The Viewpoint of The Young Muhammadiyah Intellectuals towards The Religious Minority Groups in Indonesia http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1260 <p>Muhammadiyah keeps onto make a positive contribution to the progress of Indonesia. In the first century of its advent, Muhammadiyah focused on advancing education, health, and compensation to the&nbsp;<em>d</em><em>u‘afā</em>, while through the 47<sup>th</sup> Congress in Makassar (2015), Muhammadiyah had issued an important point which emphasizes on the minority groups. This article examines a number of issues dealing with the views that underlie young Muhammadiyah intellectuals in voicing partiality towards the religious minority, the role or form of alignments and the implications of these views on thought upheavals within Muhammadiyah internally and at the national level. The study finds that the young Muhammadiyah intellectuals play a pivotal role in fighting for the basic rights of a religious minority which continues to face the complicated problem of citizenship. The data has been focused on advocacy and intellectual works, including a literature review of statements of attitudes, published books, journals, research reports, and opinions in the national mainstream and alternative media.</p> Syamsul Arifin Nafik Muthohirin Copyright (c) 2019 Syamsul Arifin, Nafik Muthohirin http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 282 305 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.2.282-305 Rethinking the Significance of Pesantren-Based Integrative Islamic Studies in the Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah IAIN Kediri http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1293 <p>The Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah IAIN Kediri is facing many challenges, one of which is related to the number of students because it seems to be less interesting and has nothing relevant to the work field. The Islamic Studies provided seems not giving sufficient capability for graduates comparing with the alumni of pesantren as well. Based on this statement, this paper seeks to find some proper solutions to suggest. This study examines the documents of the Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah of IAIN Kediri, specifically related to the curriculum. It also interviewed the stakeholders of the faculty. This study concluded that to maintain and develop the faculty’s existence, it is necessary to do the following: (1) Strengthening the integration within Islamic studies such as using practical theology approach in teaching and learning; (2) Developing continuously the ability of student at the level of a higher-order of thinking; (3) Giving special attention to the pesantren-based primary Islamic literature which mostly delivered in Arabic along with strengthening students’ ability in understanding Arabic languages.</p> Moh. Asror Yusuf Copyright (c) 2019 Moh. Asror Yusuf http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 326 352 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.2.326-351 Islam Moderat dan Problem Isu Keislaman Kontemporer di Masjid Nasional Al-Akbar Surabaya http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/244 <p>This article attempts to examine mainstreaming of the Moderate Islam together with the problem of contemporary Islamic issues at Al-Akbar National Mosque Surabaya. The article observes a number of issues such as liberalism, radicalism, and pluralism in the view of the Muslim preachers (<em>dā‘i</em>) of Al-Akbar National Mosque. The mainstreaming of the Moderate Islam has been a manifestation of recognition and reverence of the mosque management, especially the preachers in regard with a number of different religious entities in Islam. Responding to the issues, the preachers assert that the Moderate Islam contains not merely conformity with the context of socio-cultural aspect, but also the manifestation of “Islamness” which is compatible with understanding of <em>Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah</em>. What is meant here by the Islamness is a characteristic of religiosity, which puts emphasis on three aspects, namely <em>al-tawāsuṭ</em>, <em>i‘tidāl</em>, and <em>tawāzun</em>. Commonly, the cultivation of moderatism values at Al-Akbar National Mosque rests on the process of teaching, study, and <em>da‘wa</em> (preaching) activities. These activities have been implemented in persuasively subtle manner focusing on peaceful religious messages. The preachers argue that although moderatism has been usually seen as acceptance toward heterogeneity, it does not refer to any acknowledgement of such heterogeneity as a part of truth in one’s belief.</p> Muktafi Muktafi Copyright (c) 2016 Muktafi Muktafi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-29 2019-06-29 9 2 300 329 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.2.300-329 Islamism in the Perception of the Teachers and the Students of Pesantren Mawaridussalam Deli Serdang North Sumatra http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1264 <p>Many studies on <em>pesantren</em> in Indonesia put more emphasis only on the aspect of <em>pesantren</em> as the oldest Islamic educational institution in the archipelago, instead of any other aspects related to this type of educational institution. Recently, a growing number of studies have shifted their topic into one particular focus, namely radicalism or Islamism in <em>pesantren</em>. This paper aims to examine the responses of <em>pesantren</em> teachers and students to the term Islamism. This study has been conducted at <em>Pesantren</em> Mawaridussalam, an Islamic boarding school located in Batang Kuis village, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Specifically, this article elaborates on the responses of teachers and students to the issue of the Islamic state, shariazation (make Islamic law as the law of the state), democracy, and <em>jihād</em> (a struggle or fight against the enemies of Islam). The findings of this study indicate that the teachers and the students have varied understandings of Islamism. Some argue that the term is close to Islamists, while some others believe that it is identical to Islamists. Despite such understanding, most of the teachers and the students reject the use of violence in fighting for the ideals of Islam.</p> Dahlia Lubis Copyright (c) 2019 Dahlia Lubis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 9 2 1 29 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.1.1-29 Negotiation of Tradition, Islam, and Modernity in The Movement of The Kaum Mudo Islamic Reform in Minangkabau http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/266 <p>At the beginning of the 20<sup>th</sup> century when the modernism of Islam in Minangkabau was strengthened, many academics saw the Kaum Mudo Islamic movement in a paradoxical perspective. On the one hand, the movement is considered to be progress-oriented by negotiating and accommodating with adat and hence they are referred to as reformers. On the other hand, the movement is seen as opposing and eliminating the integration of the elements of local cultures (adat) and modern ideas into Islam. Therefore, they are also referred to as puritans. Employing Stella Ting-Toomeys’s identity negotiation theory, which refers to ethnic (traditional) and religious identities as primary identities, this article concludes that the Islamic Movement for the Kaum Mudo in Minangkabau is a reform movement rooted in Islamic customs and traditions and not a purification movement. It can be observed, among others, in the following cases: (1) the existing social groups contest each other and fight for their mutual influence; (2) the ethnic background of each character at that time required an attitude which gives room for negotiations; (3) the existing madrasa reform model negotiated between the traditional <em>surau</em> system and the modern Dutch school; and (4) there has been a synthesis of adat with Islam and modernity in Minangkabau which are also negotiating each other.</p> Andri Ashadi Copyright (c) 2019 Andri Ashadi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 9 2 30 59 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.1.30-59 Examining Moderate Understanding of Islam among Islamic Higher Education Students of State Islamic Institute Surakarta http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1277 <p>The study of radicalism among students of State Islamic Institutes shows a significant increase within the recent decade. This article attempts to analyze the level of moderate understanding of the students of the State Islamic Institute (IAIN) Surakarta. The survey involves 100 students. The past educational background of each student has been deeply explored to figure out the basics of religious understanding they hold. The qualitative and quantitative designs were employed to measure the level of students’ understanding of moderate Islam. This study finds that the students of IAIN Surakarta hold the moderate understanding of Islamic teachings. The number reaches 87%. The majority of moderate respondents are graduated from madrasah and pesantren. This is so because pesantren and madrasah, they graduated from, put a strong emphasis on cultivating moderate religious doctrines. This is different from that of general high school graduate students in which they learn the Islamic doctrines from Rohani Islam (<em>Rohis</em>). It has been found that the Rohis commonly hold radical and intolerant religious doctrines. This is understandable since the Rohis tends to understand Islamic doctrines textually and scripturally; different from that of Islamic teachings promulgated by pesantren and madrasa.</p> Toto Suharto Copyright (c) 2019 Toto Suharto http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 9 2 60 80 Dualisme Identitas Peranakan Arab di Kampung Arab Gresik http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/227 <p>The article attempts to ethnographically describe struggle of identity among the Arabian offspring in Indonesia in the post Reformation Era. As the descendants of the Hadrami migrants who have born in Indonesia, the Arabian offspring deal with two interrelated identities; between their responsibility to preserve the traditions of their ancestors and becoming a wholly recognized citizen of Indonesia. The debate about nationalism among the Arabian-Hadrami people appeared prior to Indonesia’s independence revolution. Anti-colonialism movements in this period had raised solidarity and solidity among the Indonesian people. This situation indubitably urged the Arabian-Hadrami people to reformulate their concept of nationalism. As a part of their nationality commitments, the Arabian Hadrami people have subsequently founded two organizations, i.e. <em>Jamiat Khair</em> (est. 1901) and <em>Jamiyat al-Islah wal-Irsyad al-Arabiyah</em> (est. 1915). In 1934, Abdurrahman Baswedan also founded <em>Persatuan Arab Indonesia</em>, which played pivotal role in cultivating Indonesian nationalism among the Arabian-Hadrami people. In the post Reformation Era, however, the issue of nationalism of the Arabian offspring has never been re-discussed. Employing ethnographical approach this study observes the ways the Arabian offspring, in <em>Kampung Arab</em> (the Arabic Town) in Gresik, compromise and negotiate with two challenges they face at once; as the heirs of Hadrami traditions and as a part of Indonesian citizens.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fikri Mahzumi Copyright (c) 2018 Fikri Mahzumi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 9 2 406 432 10.15642/teosofi.2018.8.2.403-429 Pergulatan Sosioreligius di Tengah Arus Perubahan Ekonomi pada Masyarakat Kampung Inggris Pare Kediri http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/228 <p>The establishment of educational institutes which mainly focus on English language course at <em>Kampung Inggris</em> (the Village of English) of Pare-Kediri plays pivotal role in the process of transformation of the local society especially in socio-religious and economic aspects they deal with. This article attempts to reveal socio-religious characteristic of the society at the <em>Kampung Inggris</em> along with their work ethos. The change of economic aspect has led to encounter of socio-religious aspect and the work ethos within the society as a result of the establishment of the English language courses coupled with the advent of outsiders who take the course. Employing socio-economic approach the study scrutinizes the dynamic of socio-religious aspect which grows as a consequence of the economic change. To get the necessary data and information, I use a panel of methods, which comprises interview, observation, and documentation. The discussion will focus on the socio-religious problems faced by the residents of the <em>Kampung Inggris</em> and their work ethos. The study finds that there has been a substantial change among the local society. The agrarian society at the <em>Kampung Inggris</em> has now transformed into capitalistic one. The transformation has subsequently affected their religious pattern from organic-religious to mechanic-religious.</p> Ahmad Subakir Copyright (c) 2018 Ahmad Subakir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 9 2 485 508 10.15642/teosofi.2018.8.2.455-478