TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam Aqidah and Islamic Philosophy Study Program, Faculty of Ushuluddin and Philosophy, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University Surabaya. en-US TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 2088-7957 Rethinking The Contemporary Discourse of Jihād http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1281 <p>This article purposes to evaluate the phenomenon of domination of combative jihadism and factors that have conditioned the domination. It also evaluates whether the dominant concept of <em>jihād</em> can be paralleled to the Western concept of “just war”. It can be argued that normatively Islam recognises two forms of <em>jihād </em>namely the greater <em>jihād</em> (self-purification and improvement) and the lesser <em>jihād</em> (combative war). Historically, the contemporary discourse of <em>jihād</em> has been dominated by its combative meaning, however. This domination has been conditioned by several factors, such as the growth of the ideology of radical Islamism, the Western hegemonic behaviour, globalisation and the absence of alternative narratives. This article finds that, furthermore, the dominant concept of <em>jihād</em>, in a legalistic view, is relatively similar to the Western concept of <em>just war</em>, although, in reality, it tends to be illegal or “breaking the law”. It discusses the normative and historical meanings of <em>jihād</em>, the factors that have been conditioning the domination of combative jihadism, and <em>jihād</em> and <em>just war</em>.</p> Hasnan Bachtiar Luciana Anggraeni Muhammad Asep Copyright (c) 2019 Hasnan Bachtiar, Luciana Anggraeni, Muhammad Asep http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 306 325 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.1.306-325 Intellectual Network of Mandailing and Haramayn Muslim Scholars in the Mid-19th and Early 20th Century http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1241 <p>This paper is an attempt to study the scholars’ network of Mandailing Ulama with those of Haramayn in the mid-19<sup>th</sup>&nbsp; and early 20<sup>th</sup> century. Employing the content analysis method the research finds that the Mandailing scholars had made an intellectual encounter with the scholars in Haramayn, even some of the established networks with Egyptian and Indian scholars. The Mandailing scholars connote those who ethnically originated from Mandailing clan and data reveals that Mandailing scholars come from the residencies of Tapanuli and East Sumatera, both of which are parts of the modern era North Sumatera province. This not to deny that some of the Mandailing scholars were also born in Makkah. From the aspect of the duration of the study, some scholars studied religion intensively and settled in Makkah, while others only learned the Islamic religion by meeting the scholars of Makkah only during the Hajj period. The last group of scholars only studied religion intensely in Nusantara, but while performing hajj they met the scholars and learned religion in very limited time. Mandailing scholars studied Islamic sciences, especially Quranic exegeses, hadīth, and Sufism to a number of such scholars from Arab and Nusantara as Ahmad Khatib al-Minangkabawi, ‘Abd al-Qadir b. Shabir al-Mandili (Nasution) and Hasan Masysyath. Ideologically, they studied Islamic sciences in the context of the Sunnī school of thought, especially Ash‘arīyah and Shāfi‘īyah. This study then fills the gap of the study of other researchers about the Nusantara Ulama Network with Middle Eastern scholars.</p> Mhd. Syahnan Asrul Asrul Ja'far Ja'far Copyright (c) 2019 Mhd. Syahnan, Asrul Asrul, Ja'far Ja'far http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 257 281 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.2.257-281 The Viewpoint of The Young Muhammadiyah Intellectuals towards The Religious Minority Groups in Indonesia http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1260 <p>Muhammadiyah keeps onto make a positive contribution to the progress of Indonesia. In the first century of its advent, Muhammadiyah focused on advancing education, health, and compensation to the&nbsp;<em>d</em><em>u‘afā</em>, while through the 47<sup>th</sup> Congress in Makassar (2015), Muhammadiyah had issued an important point which emphasizes on the minority groups. This article examines a number of issues dealing with the views that underlie young Muhammadiyah intellectuals in voicing partiality towards the religious minority, the role or form of alignments and the implications of these views on thought upheavals within Muhammadiyah internally and at the national level. The study finds that the young Muhammadiyah intellectuals play a pivotal role in fighting for the basic rights of a religious minority which continues to face the complicated problem of citizenship. The data has been focused on advocacy and intellectual works, including a literature review of statements of attitudes, published books, journals, research reports, and opinions in the national mainstream and alternative media.</p> Syamsul Arifin Nafik Muthohirin Copyright (c) 2019 Syamsul Arifin, Nafik Muthohirin http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 282 305 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.2.282-305 Rethinking the Significance of Pesantren-Based Integrative Islamic Studies in the Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah IAIN Kediri http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1293 <p>The Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah IAIN Kediri is facing many challenges, one of which is related to the number of students because it seems to be less interesting and has nothing relevant to the work field. The Islamic Studies provided seems not giving sufficient capability for graduates comparing with the alumni of pesantren as well. Based on this statement, this paper seeks to find some proper solutions to suggest. This study examines the documents of the Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah of IAIN Kediri, specifically related to the curriculum. It also interviewed the stakeholders of the faculty. This study concluded that to maintain and develop the faculty’s existence, it is necessary to do the following: (1) Strengthening the integration within Islamic studies such as using practical theology approach in teaching and learning; (2) Developing continuously the ability of student at the level of a higher-order of thinking; (3) Giving special attention to the pesantren-based primary Islamic literature which mostly delivered in Arabic along with strengthening students’ ability in understanding Arabic languages.</p> Moh. Asror Yusuf Copyright (c) 2019 Moh. Asror Yusuf http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 326 352 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.2.326-351 Salafi’s Criticism on the Celebration of the Birthday of Prophet Muhammad http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1317 <p>This article explains the standing of the Salafis on the celebration of the Prophet Muhammad’s birthday (<em>mawlid</em>). It will also capture some opinions of the proponents of the <em>mawlid</em> against the understanding of the Salafis. The Salafis’ criticism of the <em>mawlid</em> has been mainly built on their theological perspective due to three reasons. The <em>first</em> is the requirement of authenticity, as they argue that the mawlid has no argument (<em>dalīl</em>) both in the Qur’ān and ḥadīth. The <em>second</em> is the prohibition of innovation (<em>bid‘ah</em>) due to the status of the <em>mawlid</em> as an act of innovation. The <em>third</em> is the reprehensibility of veneration and idolatry of the Prophet Muhammad. The proponents of the <em>mawlid</em>, on the other side, clearly reject these arguments. They admit that the <em>mawlid</em> is inauthentic. However, they argue that it falls under the category of good innovation (<em>bid</em><em>‘</em><em>ah ḥ</em><em>asanah</em>). Therefore, it is allowed to be practiced. In addition, the Salafis also condemned some practices within the <em>mawlid</em>, such as serving food, the act of standing up (<em>qiyām</em>), the recitation of <em>mawlid</em> books, and the use of musical instruments. For the proponents, however, these practices are allowed as they do not violate any Islamic teachings (<em>sharī</em><em>‘</em><em>a</em><em>h</em>) and they also represent a sincere expression of joy and happiness for the birth of the messenger of Allah and the noblest person, i.e., the Prophet Muhammad.</p> Muhammad As'ad Copyright (c) 2019 Muhammad As'ad http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 353 379 Redefining Rational (Aqlī) and Revelation (Naqlī) into a Concept of Islamic Systemology http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1342 <p>The way of thinking held by most Muslims has nowadays shifted away from Allah-centred to logical and empiricism. The separation line of Islam from ways of life can be seen clearly as the majority of Muslims hold secular thoughts. The paper aims to redefine <em>‘a</em><em>qlī</em> and <em>n</em><em>aqlī</em> way of thinking into the Islamic systemology concept. It is a concept that puts Allah as an agent of everything, with Him as the head of the system. Besides, the paper also discusses the process of the evolution of Greek philosophy deeply, how it became a phenomenon in the Muslim world. The application of rational and reasoning, which is championed by Aristotle, is slowly degrading Muslims’ faith, as Muslims start to verify everything based only on logical answers. The article is also strengthening the position of Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī and supporting his arguments on the rejection of the Western philosophy by outlining the importance of <em>yaqīn</em> (strong inner faith) in taking action and making a better judgment. The Islamic systemology concepts are very important to make Muslims aware of the balancing between <em>‘a</em><em>qlī</em> and <em>n</em><em>aqlī</em>, as both of them are interconnected and complementary. Ignoring <em>n</em><em>aqlī</em> means Muslims put more emphasis on the world (<em>dunyā</em>) and put less belief in Allah. Hence they jeopardize the equilibrium of thinking.</p> Muhammad Aiman Awalluddin Copyright (c) 2019 Muhammad Aiman Awalluddin http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 407 427 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.2.407-427 The Revivalism of Veiled Female Students: An Account of Their Views of Democracy in Indonesia http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1351 <p>The issue of veiled female students has become a polemic, especially among the State Islamic Religious Colleges (PTKIN) in Indonesia. This has been caused, among others, not only by the fact that the issue of wearing veil for female students obstructs the process of learning activities, but it is also viewed as a sign of Islamic revivalism. In this context, Islamic revivalism is considered a barrier to Islamic moderatism promulgated by the state and the PTKIN. Nonetheless, excessive concern about revivalism is not always true. Azyumardi Azra once argued that revivalism does not always lead to radicalism and destructive matters. He calls it as “inward-oriented” revivalism, which is a form of personal religiosity in practicing religion and living it. This article attempts to examine the revivalism of the veiled female students based on their views of democracy in Indonesia. Employing the phenomenological approach, this study finds that the veiled female students hold a positive view of democracy in Indonesia as a means of welfare creation for society. They, however, assert that democracy in Indonesia should be rejuvenated. To them, democracy is not only a concept, but it is also a practical matter which must be present in the real-life of the Indonesian people. This view demonstrates inward-oriented revivalism, not the radical-destructive one.</p> Iswahyudi Iswahyudi Udin Safala Umi Kulsum Copyright (c) 2019 Iswahyudi Iswahyudi, Udin Safala, Umi Kulsum http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 9 2 380 406 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.2.380-406 Islam Moderat dan Problem Isu Keislaman Kontemporer di Masjid Nasional Al-Akbar Surabaya http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/244 <p>This article attempts to examine mainstreaming of the Moderate Islam together with the problem of contemporary Islamic issues at Al-Akbar National Mosque Surabaya. The article observes a number of issues such as liberalism, radicalism, and pluralism in the view of the Muslim preachers (<em>dā‘i</em>) of Al-Akbar National Mosque. The mainstreaming of the Moderate Islam has been a manifestation of recognition and reverence of the mosque management, especially the preachers in regard with a number of different religious entities in Islam. Responding to the issues, the preachers assert that the Moderate Islam contains not merely conformity with the context of socio-cultural aspect, but also the manifestation of “Islamness” which is compatible with understanding of <em>Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah</em>. What is meant here by the Islamness is a characteristic of religiosity, which puts emphasis on three aspects, namely <em>al-tawāsuṭ</em>, <em>i‘tidāl</em>, and <em>tawāzun</em>. Commonly, the cultivation of moderatism values at Al-Akbar National Mosque rests on the process of teaching, study, and <em>da‘wa</em> (preaching) activities. These activities have been implemented in persuasively subtle manner focusing on peaceful religious messages. The preachers argue that although moderatism has been usually seen as acceptance toward heterogeneity, it does not refer to any acknowledgement of such heterogeneity as a part of truth in one’s belief.</p> Muktafi Muktafi Copyright (c) 2016 Muktafi Muktafi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-29 2019-06-29 9 2 300 329 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.2.300-329 Radical Islamism as a Mode of Production http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1321 <p>This article attempts to provide a breakthrough which I call mode of production theory. This theory will be employed to analyze the contemporary phenomenon of radical Islamism. The mode of production theory is meant to bridge the two clashing theoretical paradigms in social sciences and humanities, i.e., Weberian and Marxian. Despite its bridging nature, the paper argues that the two cannot be merged within one single thread. This is because each paradigm has its own epistemological basis which is irreconcilable to one another. Mostly adapted from Marx’s theory, the current theory of the mode of production covers five interrelated aspects, namely social, political, economic, cultural, and symbolic structures. If Marx’s mode of production theory heavily relies on a material and economic basis, the theory used in this paper accommodates cultural and symbolic structures that are Weberian in nature. Although the two paradigms can operate together, the strength of structure (Marxian) overpowers the strength of culture (Weberian). This paper further argues that such cultural-based aspects as ideology, norms, and values play as mobilizing factors under a big schematic dominant structure in the rise and development of the radical Islamist groups.</p> Masdar Hilmy Copyright (c) 2019 Masdar Hilmy http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-02 2019-06-02 9 2 81 108 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.1.81-108 Islamism in the Perception of the Teachers and the Students of Pesantren Mawaridussalam Deli Serdang North Sumatra http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1264 <p>Many studies on <em>pesantren</em> in Indonesia put more emphasis only on the aspect of <em>pesantren</em> as the oldest Islamic educational institution in the archipelago, instead of any other aspects related to this type of educational institution. Recently, a growing number of studies have shifted their topic into one particular focus, namely radicalism or Islamism in <em>pesantren</em>. This paper aims to examine the responses of <em>pesantren</em> teachers and students to the term Islamism. This study has been conducted at <em>Pesantren</em> Mawaridussalam, an Islamic boarding school located in Batang Kuis village, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Specifically, this article elaborates on the responses of teachers and students to the issue of the Islamic state, shariazation (make Islamic law as the law of the state), democracy, and <em>jihād</em> (a struggle or fight against the enemies of Islam). The findings of this study indicate that the teachers and the students have varied understandings of Islamism. Some argue that the term is close to Islamists, while some others believe that it is identical to Islamists. Despite such understanding, most of the teachers and the students reject the use of violence in fighting for the ideals of Islam.</p> Dahlia Lubis Copyright (c) 2019 Dahlia Lubis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 9 2 1 29 10.15642/teosofi.2019.9.1.1-29