TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 2020-01-23T02:39:21+00:00 Muktafi Open Journal Systems Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam Intellectual Network of Mandailing and Haramayn Muslim Scholars in the Mid-19th and Early 20th Century 2020-01-23T02:39:21+00:00 Mhd. Syahnan Asrul Asrul Ja'far Ja'far <p>This paper is an attempt to study the scholars’ network of Mandailing Ulama with those of Haramayn in the mid-19<sup>th</sup>&nbsp; and early 20<sup>th</sup> century. Employing the content analysis method the research finds that the Mandailing scholars had made an intellectual encounter with the scholars in Haramayn, even some of the established networks with Egyptian and Indian scholars. The Mandailing scholars connote those who ethnically originated from Mandailing clan and data reveals that Mandailing scholars come from the residencies of Tapanuli and East Sumatera, both of which are parts of the modern era North Sumatera province. This not to deny that some of the Mandailing scholars were also born in Makkah. From the aspect of the duration of the study, some scholars studied religion intensively and settled in Makkah, while others only learned the Islamic religion by meeting the scholars of Makkah only during the Hajj period. The last group of scholars only studied religion intensely in Nusantara, but while performing hajj they met the scholars and learned religion in very limited time. Mandailing scholars studied Islamic sciences, especially Quranic exegeses, hadīth, and Sufism to a number of such scholars from Arab and Nusantara as Ahmad Khatib al-Minangkabawi, ‘Abd al-Qadir b. Shabir al-Mandili (Nasution) and Hasan Masysyath. Ideologically, they studied Islamic sciences in the context of the Sunnī school of thought, especially Ash‘arīyah and Shāfi‘īyah. This study then fills the gap of the study of other researchers about the Nusantara Ulama Network with Middle Eastern scholars.</p> 2019-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Mhd. Syahnan, Asrul Asrul, Ja'far Ja'far Islam Moderat dan Problem Isu Keislaman Kontemporer di Masjid Nasional Al-Akbar Surabaya 2019-06-29T05:00:03+00:00 Muktafi Muktafi <p>This article attempts to examine mainstreaming of the Moderate Islam together with the problem of contemporary Islamic issues at Al-Akbar National Mosque Surabaya. The article observes a number of issues such as liberalism, radicalism, and pluralism in the view of the Muslim preachers (<em>dā‘i</em>) of Al-Akbar National Mosque. The mainstreaming of the Moderate Islam has been a manifestation of recognition and reverence of the mosque management, especially the preachers in regard with a number of different religious entities in Islam. Responding to the issues, the preachers assert that the Moderate Islam contains not merely conformity with the context of socio-cultural aspect, but also the manifestation of “Islamness” which is compatible with understanding of <em>Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah</em>. What is meant here by the Islamness is a characteristic of religiosity, which puts emphasis on three aspects, namely <em>al-tawāsuṭ</em>, <em>i‘tidāl</em>, and <em>tawāzun</em>. Commonly, the cultivation of moderatism values at Al-Akbar National Mosque rests on the process of teaching, study, and <em>da‘wa</em> (preaching) activities. These activities have been implemented in persuasively subtle manner focusing on peaceful religious messages. The preachers argue that although moderatism has been usually seen as acceptance toward heterogeneity, it does not refer to any acknowledgement of such heterogeneity as a part of truth in one’s belief.</p> 2019-06-29T04:55:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2016 Muktafi Muktafi Dualisme Identitas Peranakan Arab di Kampung Arab Gresik 2019-07-01T11:57:27+00:00 Fikri Mahzumi <p>The article attempts to ethnographically describe struggle of identity among the Arabian offspring in Indonesia in the post Reformation Era. As the descendants of the Hadrami migrants who have born in Indonesia, the Arabian offspring deal with two interrelated identities; between their responsibility to preserve the traditions of their ancestors and becoming a wholly recognized citizen of Indonesia. The debate about nationalism among the Arabian-Hadrami people appeared prior to Indonesia’s independence revolution. Anti-colonialism movements in this period had raised solidarity and solidity among the Indonesian people. This situation indubitably urged the Arabian-Hadrami people to reformulate their concept of nationalism. As a part of their nationality commitments, the Arabian Hadrami people have subsequently founded two organizations, i.e. <em>Jamiat Khair</em> (est. 1901) and <em>Jamiyat al-Islah wal-Irsyad al-Arabiyah</em> (est. 1915). In 1934, Abdurrahman Baswedan also founded <em>Persatuan Arab Indonesia</em>, which played pivotal role in cultivating Indonesian nationalism among the Arabian-Hadrami people. In the post Reformation Era, however, the issue of nationalism of the Arabian offspring has never been re-discussed. Employing ethnographical approach this study observes the ways the Arabian offspring, in <em>Kampung Arab</em> (the Arabic Town) in Gresik, compromise and negotiate with two challenges they face at once; as the heirs of Hadrami traditions and as a part of Indonesian citizens.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Fikri Mahzumi Pergulatan Sosioreligius di Tengah Arus Perubahan Ekonomi pada Masyarakat Kampung Inggris Pare Kediri 2019-07-01T11:58:53+00:00 Ahmad Subakir <p>The establishment of educational institutes which mainly focus on English language course at <em>Kampung Inggris</em> (the Village of English) of Pare-Kediri plays pivotal role in the process of transformation of the local society especially in socio-religious and economic aspects they deal with. This article attempts to reveal socio-religious characteristic of the society at the <em>Kampung Inggris</em> along with their work ethos. The change of economic aspect has led to encounter of socio-religious aspect and the work ethos within the society as a result of the establishment of the English language courses coupled with the advent of outsiders who take the course. Employing socio-economic approach the study scrutinizes the dynamic of socio-religious aspect which grows as a consequence of the economic change. To get the necessary data and information, I use a panel of methods, which comprises interview, observation, and documentation. The discussion will focus on the socio-religious problems faced by the residents of the <em>Kampung Inggris</em> and their work ethos. The study finds that there has been a substantial change among the local society. The agrarian society at the <em>Kampung Inggris</em> has now transformed into capitalistic one. The transformation has subsequently affected their religious pattern from organic-religious to mechanic-religious.</p> 2018-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Ahmad Subakir Dinamika Hubungan Islam dan Lokalitas: Perebutan Makna Keislaman di Madura 2019-07-01T11:58:02+00:00 Ahmad Zainul Hamdi <p>The discussion about Islam and local culture has resulted in a number of monumental academic works. The relation of Islam and the Javanese culture along with its dynamics have frequently colored intellectual debates in the field. Among the din of such fascinating academic debates, Islam Madura has been nearly neglected as an uninteresting academic discourse to observe. It has been argued that Madura is viewed as a “back door” of Java. It implies that observing Java means observing Madura automatically. This study seeks to raise the issue of contestation over the meaning of Islam within the relational context between Islam and the local culture of Madura society. Based on field research conducted under the light of Beatty’s multi-vocality concept, the study finds that Islam Madura is a communal identity, but it defines nothing about the Madurese Muslim community in general. Although each group acknowledges Islam as a shared identity, every individual and group, or sub-group, will have no a common understanding about the meaning of Islam. Islam has, certainly, unified all the Madurese people within a common perspective of mankind, God, and worldly matters, but this identity represents no one and does not specifically define any conception of anyone. The meaning of Islam Madura has been, therefore, endlessly knitted within compromising and synthesis process.</p> 2018-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Ahmad Zainul Hamdi Membaca Pemikiran Bediuzzaman Said Nursi tentang Signifikansi Agama dan Identitas Bagi Kemajuan Sosial 2019-07-01T11:56:46+00:00 Ustadi Hamsah <p>Identity is the basic principle of the society. The search for identity and effort to build and defend identity is the fundamental struggle for society. Theoretically, the prosperous society depends on the strength of its identity. The society can achieve the social advancement, extraordinary ethos, and creativity because of their strong identity. This article attempts to explain how identity and self-capability contribute to the social advancement. This explanation refers to the thought of the modern gigantic Turkish thinker, Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Exploring the construction of Said Nursi’s concept of Islamic identity and self-capability in developing society, especially in social prosperity and economic progression, this paper attempts to explain the foundation of social and individual prosperity. According to Said Nursi, the development of culture and civilization will be established by powerful identity which constructed by awareness of collective personality (<em>şahs-ı manevi</em>). The powerful identity, therefore, bases on the spirit of self-capability that will raise a progress and development. Referring to Said Nursi, this basic foundation of self-capability developed through three principles, namely self-interest versus self-sacrifice, extravagance versus frugality, and greed versus contentment. Then, by practicing and applying these three values, the prosperity and development can be achieved.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Ustadi Hamsah Makna Zikir Bagi Jemaah Tarekat Naqshabandīyah Khālīdīyah Majelis Pengkajian Tauhid Tasawuf Indonesia di Kota Gorontalo 2019-07-01T11:56:15+00:00 Rahmawati Rahmawati Kasim Yahiji Mustakimah Mustakimah <p>This article attempts to elaborate the existence of <em>dhikr</em> along with its meaning performed and hold by the members of the <em>Majelis Pengkajian Tauhid Tasawuf Indonesia</em> under the auspices of the Tarekat Naqshabandīyah Khālidīyah in Gorontalo City. The study indicates that <em>dhikr </em>is a substantially mandatory ritual that must be performed by the followers of the <em>tarekat</em>. In this point they interpret the meaning of <em>dhikr</em> within various arguments. The <em>tarekat</em> members who reached what so-called the level of <em>tawhīd ‘aqīdah</em> argue that <em>dhikr </em>is an important matter which brings about positive energy and leads its performers to discover true religious spirituality. They believe that the positive energy becomes significantly determinant factor and it has relevance to solve the problems of daily life. On the other side, the <em>tarekat</em> members who have reached the level of <em>taw</em><em>ḥ</em><em>īd </em><em>ṣ</em><em>ūfi</em> interpret <em>dhikr</em> as a spiritual obligation which orients its performers to lovingness and intimacy with God. To the urban society of Gorontalo <em>dhikr</em> is viewed as a <em>mindset</em> which emphasizes that within spiritually sacred realm, on one hand, <em>dhikr</em> provides a positive indication which is coherently compatible with the profane reality of their life on the other.</p> 2018-12-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Rahmawati Rahmawati; Kasim Yahiji; Mustakimah Mustakimah Kajian atas Wacana Tasawuf dan Keutuhan Sosial Ernest Gellner 2019-07-01T11:55:28+00:00 Abdul Kadir Riyadi <p>This article seeks to scrutinize the thought of Ernest Gellner particularly his idea of tasawuf and its relation to social cohesion. He has raised a number of questions concerning the relation of Islam and tasawuf with modernity, which attract the attention of other scholars in the field. By modernity he means secularism, industrialism and national-ism. Motivated by secular and orientalist ideals, Gellner seems to have no ground in the “normative” aspect of Islam. This study finds that he is equally not consistent. In the first instance, he tends to argue that Islam must be excluded from modernity because it is not in conformity with it. Then he speaks of what he calls higher Islam and lower Islam, the former being in line with modernity while the latter is not. With regard to this distinction, he urges that Muslim society undergoes what he calls a “transition” from the lower to the higher Islam if it is to join the modern society and be part of the “cohesive world”. The lower Islam should be left out because it teaches magic and encourages poverty. By bringing up this distinction, and not sticking to the consistent paradigm, Gellner’s thought on Islam and tasawuf vis-à-vis modernity is—it may be judged—dichotomous and even perplexed.</p> 2018-12-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Abdul Kadir Riyadi Kesepadanan Tekstual dan Ideologi Penerjemahan Arab-Jawa dalam Kitab Sharḥ al-Ḥikam 2019-07-01T11:55:53+00:00 Muhammad Yunus Anis <p>This study attempts to elaborate textual equivalence of the Arabic translation and the Javanese translation in Ibn ‘Aṭā’ Allah al-Sakandarī’s masterpiece, <em>al-</em><em>Ḥ</em><em>ikam</em>. Within the first stage, the texts in this book will be studied from a number of linguistic aspects which are connected to lexical forms and phraseological feature. Every language is semantically assumed as possessing specific characteristic in terms of its lexical and phraseological features. The Sufis, in this case, will have particular inclination in their language expression. The lexical and phraseological features become, among others, a measure-ment of mystical language which covers compositional and unitary meanings. To comprehensively understand the mystical life explained in <em>al-</em><em>Ḥ</em><em>ikam</em> we need, therefore, to deeply study such lexical and phraseological features. The second stage will focus on the ideology of translation of <em>al-</em><em>Ḥ</em><em>ikam</em>. This sort of ideology will provide us information on the relation of the Indonesian Islamic texts and—along with their potential integration with—scholars around the world. The study finds that the ideology of translation has been founded on <em>foreignization method</em> and <em>domestication method</em>. These two methods have played a pivotal role on how particular texts of Sufisme are produced and consumed by the Indonesian Muslim society.</p> 2018-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Muhammad Yunus Anis Kearifan Muhammadiyah di Sumatera Utara dalam Merespons Isu Radikalisme 2019-07-01T11:58:34+00:00 Al Rasyidin Hasnah Nasution <p>Radicalism and terrorism have anxiously attracted the world community. Ironically, the terms have been labeled to Islam and the Muslims. This article focuses on how does Muhammadiyah as one of the Indonesian largest Islamic organizations respond to the issue of radicalism in Indonesia? Based on field research where the data is gathered through interview, observation, and documentary study, the research puts emphasis on the responses of Muhammadiyah toward the idea and movement which attempt to establish Islamic state; its responses to the Western countries and the unbelievers; its interpretation of <em>jihad </em>as an obligatory war against the unbelievers; and its idea on legalization of suicide bombings. The study indicates that Muhammadiyah, particularly in the North Sumatera, rejects any radical movement along with its ideology in Indonesia. Muhammadiyah sees that <em>NKRI</em> (The Unity State of the Republic of Indonesia) has been an ideal model of state and it is a blessing of God that must be preserved and protected. Muhammadiyah condemns anyone who justifies violent acts and commits murder and suicide bombings in the name of religion. Muhammadiyah also asserts that radicalism is a threat toward world peace and it has no correlation with the Islamic teachings.</p> 2018-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Al Rasyidin, Hasnah Nasution