TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 2020-10-12T05:10:54+00:00 Muktafi Open Journal Systems Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam Teosofi Tariqa and Its Principles, Rituals, and Rationality as a Religious Movement 2020-10-04T11:27:48+00:00 M. Dimyati Huda Nur Chamid <p>This article seeks to reveal the principles, rituals, and rationality of a religious movement named Teosofi Tariqa. This Sufi order has existed in Indonesia since 1908. This research finds its importance on the basis of the fact that the Teosofi Tariqa offers different perspectives from other religious movements. It also becomes an interesting study in terms of religious conflict resolution in Indonesia. Using a qualitative approach, this research relies much on a number of data collecting instruments such as observations, interviews, and documentation. The Miles and Huberman versions are used to analyzing the data. The research finds that the Teosofi Tariqa in Surabaya promulgates tolerance and diversity principles towards other people regardless of their religions. As a Sufi order, the Teosofi Tariqa puts emphasis on mysticism and meditation as a means of submission, obedience, and servitude to the absolute and rational God. It also emphasizes the importance of community services.</p> 2020-06-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 M. Dimyati Huda, Nur Chamid The Voice of the Ulema and Dilemma of the Indonesian Ulema Council’s Fatwa among Low Literate Society 2020-07-09T11:40:55+00:00 Fariz Alnizar Achmad Munjid <p>Some Islamic movements in Indonesia make the fatwas issued by the MUI as a reference for their actions. They recently found their momentum after the defence movements called 411 and 212. The proponents of the movements called themselves as Gerakan Nasional Pengawal Fatwa Majelis Ulama Indonesia (GNPF-MUI/The National Movement of Guardian of Fatwa of the Indonesian Ulema Council). Employing a qualitative approach coupled with historical-causal paradigm this article examines the main question: Do the proponents of these movements substantially understand the fatwas they defend? The results of the research show that the fatwas have a dilemmatic position. On the one hand, there have been movements which insist on making the fatwas as “sacred opinion” that must be protected and guarded. On the other hand, people do not substantially comprehend the fatwas they defend. This problem has been caused, among others, by the cultural basis of the Indonesian society which put more preference on orality than literality or, explicitly, written tradition.</p> 2020-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Fariz Alnizar, Achmad Munjid Dialectic and Intersection of Sufism and Kalam in the 1st and 2nd Century of Hijri 2020-10-06T16:42:58+00:00 Yogi Prana Izza <p>This article seeks to examine the dialectic of Sufism orientation and Kalam with a special focus on the intersection between these two realms during the 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> centuries of Hijri. This study emphasizes three aspects: the background and chronology of the intersection, the issues arose in it, and the characteristics of this intersection. The study reveals that political and sociological along with intellectual and academic factors became the background of the intersection between Sufism and Kalam in the 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> century of Hijri. The main issues developed in this intersection dealt mainly with faith (<em>īmān</em>), infidelity (<em>kufr</em>), the problems of human deeds (<em>af</em><em>‘</em><em>āl al-</em><em>‘</em><em>ibād</em>), and the relationship of the essence (<em>dhāt</em>) and the divine attributes (<em>ṣ</em><em>ifāt</em>) of Allah. There have been three characteristics of the intersection that can be mapped. <em>Firstly</em>, the interrelation of doctrine and political attitudes. This means that there is a strong correlation, even integration, between the doctrine of a sect (<em>firqah</em>) and political attitudes. <em>Secondly</em>, thematic theological interconnection. This means that there are common issues that are discussed in matters of theology. <em>Thirdly</em>, rational debate is based on rational approaches. This means that the conflict of thoughts occurred is essentially a dialogue because it is not on a different study line, but in the same area using a rational approach.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Yogi Prana Izza Hādī al-‘Alawī and the Heterodoxy of Communo-Sufism 2020-08-01T02:32:34+00:00 Abdul Kadir Riyadi <p>Sufism is time and again being associated with heresy as a result—among others—of a controversial thought by a man called Hadi al-‘Alawī with whom this paper is concerned. Using the concept of heterodoxy, this paper attempts to access the matrix of tensions and representations inherent within his so-called Communo-Sufism. It shows that as a communist, the first phase of his life, he looks at traditional Islam as a feudalized form of religion. It is a kind of natural betrayal to the genuine religiosity and spirituality represented by what he calls the “Jahili Islam”. In his view, the Jahili Islam is authentic and that Muhammad’s version of it is a sheer distortion of true Islam. The paper also tries to show that as a communist-sufi, the second phase of his life, he came up with a distinction between the “dead Islam” and the “living Islam”. The former is represented by traditionally Muslim faithful who adhere to Muhammad’s version of Islam. The latter, in the meantime, is the continuation of the Jahili-Islam. In al-‘Alawī’s discourse, Islam can only live on if it is based on the Jahili-Islam socially and legally. Theologically, Islam must be based on the Judeo-Christian traditions; philosophically on the Persian and Byzantine episteme; ideologically on Communism; and spiritually on Sufism. Vibrant as it may seem at the surface, his premises are nonetheless anarchistic and are an anti-thesis to the existing paradigmatic form of Islam.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Abdul Kadir Riyadi Power-knowledge Relations of The Elder and The Younger Madurese Muslim Scholars in Propagating Islamism in Madura: A Counter-narrative 2020-10-06T15:51:32+00:00 Abd A'la Ahwan Mukarrom <p>This article examines the relationship between religion-politics and knowledge developed by the Kiai Tua and the Kiai Muda in Madura. The Kiai Tua, represented by Aliansi Ulama Madura (AUMA/The Alliance of Madurese Ulema), and the Kiai Muda, represented by Forum Kiai Muda (FKM/The Forum of Young Ulema), have actively propagated the idea of Islamism in Madura. Employing Foucault’s theory of power relations, this article finds that the relation of power and knowledge, which has been constructed by the AUMA, the FKM, and their organizational networks, seems to put Madura in a risk as this idea will bring about the intolerant and exclusive view. Their religious understanding and publicity have a militant and robust desire to make their ideological narratives, mainly the ideology of Islamic revival, along with the aspiration to establish a global Islamic leadership system, come into existence. This resistant attitude subsequently makes this ideology goes into an extreme, radical, and intolerant movement. For this reason, several moderate groups such as Pengurus Cabang Nahdlatul Ulama (PCNU) Pamekasan, along with its autonomous bodies, have actively voiced moderate and peaceful religious narratives as a counterbalance against intolerant and exclusive religious narratives proclaimed by two aforementioned Islamist groups.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Abd A'la, Ahwan Mukarrom Sufi Qur'ānic Exegesis and Theomorphic Anthropology 2020-10-12T05:10:54+00:00 Stephen Cúrto <p>Of all the various ideological controversies in the history of Islamic thought, one of the most highly contentious areas are those surrounding the ontological nature of the Divine attributes (<em>Ṣ</em><em>ifāt Allah</em>). Such questions surrounding God’s attributes, and what delineation, if any, is to be made between the nature of God in his Divine attributes and in his Being (<em>Dhāt Allah</em>) preoccupied some of the greatest classical participants in the <em>‘ilm al-kalām</em> systematic theological disputation tradition. This study engages Qur’ānic paradigms of theomorphic anthropology and re-interrogations by Sufi thinkers. There is a rich debate within Islamic Scholarship on the nature of the Divine attributes, and their interrelationship, if any, with Banī Adam. Many of the mystical Sufi scholars, such as Ibn ‘Arabī, Mūlla Sadra, Nāṣir Khusraw, and Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī all articulated onto-theological concepts in their writing that became known as <em>Wa</em><em>ḥ</em><em>dat al-Wujud</em>, <em>Tajallī</em> <em>Allah</em>, <em>Tajallī al-Nafs’ Nafs-e ‘Aql</em>, and <em>Nafs-e Kūl</em>. This paper argues that the idea of Divine immanence articulated in concepts like ‘<em>Tajallī al-Nafs</em>’ is not a later retrojection onto Qur’ānic material. Rather it is the Qur’ānic material that exegeted with a meaningful and consistent hermeneutic resulted in their theosophical understandings.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Stephen Cúrto Dialogue with The Master: Early Shī‘a Encounters with Akbarīan Mysticism 2020-10-10T14:59:00+00:00 Leila Chamankhah <p>Muḥy al-Dīn Ibn ‘Arabī’s theoretical mysticism has been the subject of lively discussion among Iranian Sufis since they first encountered it in the seventh century. ‘Abdul Razzāq Kāshānī was the pioneer and forerunner of the debate, followed by reading and interpreting al-Shaykh al-Akbar’s key texts, particularly <em>Fu</em><em>ṣ</em><em>ū</em><em>ṣ</em><em> al</em><em>-</em><em>Ḥ</em><em>ikam</em> (Bezels of Wisdom) by future generations of Shī‘ī scholars. Along with commentaries and glosses on his works, every element of ibn ‘Arabī’s mysticism, from his theory of the oneness of existence (<em>w</em><em>a</em><em>ḥ</em><em>dat al-wuj</em><em>ū</em><em>d</em>) to his doctrines of <em>nubuwwa</em>, <em>wil</em><em>ā</em><em>ya</em>, and <em>khatm al-wil</em><em>ā</em><em>ya</em>, was accepted by his Shī‘ī peers, incorporated into their context and adjusted to Shī‘a doctrinal platform. This process of internalization and amalgamation was so complete that after seven centuries, it is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish between Ibn ‘Arabī’s theory of <em>w</em><em>a</em><em>ḥ</em><em>dat al-wuj</em><em>ū</em><em>d</em>, or his doctrines of <em>wil</em><em>ā</em><em>ya</em> and <em>khatm al-wil</em><em>ā</em><em>ya</em> and those of his Shī‘ī readers. To have a clearer picture of the philosophical and mystical activities and interests of Shī‘ī scholars in Iran under Ilkhanids (1256-1353), I examined the intellectual and historical contexts of seventh century Iran. The findings of my research are indicative of the contribution of mystics such as ‘Abdul Razzāq Kāshānī to both the school of Ibn ‘Arabī in general and of Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī in particular on the one hand, and to the correlation between Sufism and Shī‘īsm on the other. What I call the ‘Shī‘ītization of Akbarīan Mysticism’ started with Kāshānī and can be regarded as a new chapter in the history of Iranian Sufism.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Leila Chamankhah Rethinking The Contemporary Discourse of Jihād 2020-03-02T12:47:13+00:00 Hasnan Bachtiar Luciana Anggraeni Muhammad Asep <p>This article purposes to evaluate the phenomenon of domination of combative jihadism and factors that have conditioned the domination. It also evaluates whether the dominant concept of <em>jihād</em> can be paralleled to the Western concept of “just war”. It can be argued that normatively Islam recognises two forms of <em>jihād </em>namely the greater <em>jihād</em> (self-purification and improvement) and the lesser <em>jihād</em> (combative war). Historically, the contemporary discourse of <em>jihād</em> has been dominated by its combative meaning, however. This domination has been conditioned by several factors, such as the growth of the ideology of radical Islamism, the Western hegemonic behaviour, globalisation and the absence of alternative narratives. This article finds that, furthermore, the dominant concept of <em>jihād</em>, in a legalistic view, is relatively similar to the Western concept of <em>just war</em>, although, in reality, it tends to be illegal or “breaking the law”. It discusses the normative and historical meanings of <em>jihād</em>, the factors that have been conditioning the domination of combative jihadism, and <em>jihād</em> and <em>just war</em>.</p> 2019-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hasnan Bachtiar, Luciana Anggraeni, Muhammad Asep Intellectual Network of Mandailing and Haramayn Muslim Scholars in the Mid-19th and Early 20th Century 2020-03-02T12:46:56+00:00 Mhd. Syahnan Asrul Asrul Ja'far Ja'far <p>This paper is an attempt to study the scholars’ network of Mandailing Ulama with those of Haramayn in the mid-19<sup>th</sup>&nbsp; and early 20<sup>th</sup> century. Employing the content analysis method the research finds that the Mandailing scholars had made an intellectual encounter with the scholars in Haramayn, even some of the established networks with Egyptian and Indian scholars. The Mandailing scholars connote those who ethnically originated from Mandailing clan and data reveals that Mandailing scholars come from the residencies of Tapanuli and East Sumatera, both of which are parts of the modern era North Sumatera province. This not to deny that some of the Mandailing scholars were also born in Makkah. From the aspect of the duration of the study, some scholars studied religion intensively and settled in Makkah, while others only learned the Islamic religion by meeting the scholars of Makkah only during the Hajj period. The last group of scholars only studied religion intensely in Nusantara, but while performing hajj they met the scholars and learned religion in very limited time. Mandailing scholars studied Islamic sciences, especially Quranic exegeses, hadīth, and Sufism to a number of such scholars from Arab and Nusantara as Ahmad Khatib al-Minangkabawi, ‘Abd al-Qadir b. Shabir al-Mandili (Nasution) and Hasan Masysyath. Ideologically, they studied Islamic sciences in the context of the Sunnī school of thought, especially Ash‘arīyah and Shāfi‘īyah. This study then fills the gap of the study of other researchers about the Nusantara Ulama Network with Middle Eastern scholars.</p> 2019-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Mhd. Syahnan, Asrul Asrul, Ja'far Ja'far The Viewpoint of The Young Muhammadiyah Intellectuals towards The Religious Minority Groups in Indonesia 2020-03-02T12:47:04+00:00 Syamsul Arifin Nafik Muthohirin <p>Muhammadiyah keeps onto make a positive contribution to the progress of Indonesia. In the first century of its advent, Muhammadiyah focused on advancing education, health, and compensation to the&nbsp;<em>d</em><em>u‘afā</em>, while through the 47<sup>th</sup> Congress in Makassar (2015), Muhammadiyah had issued an important point which emphasizes on the minority groups. This article examines a number of issues dealing with the views that underlie young Muhammadiyah intellectuals in voicing partiality towards the religious minority, the role or form of alignments and the implications of these views on thought upheavals within Muhammadiyah internally and at the national level. The study finds that the young Muhammadiyah intellectuals play a pivotal role in fighting for the basic rights of a religious minority which continues to face the complicated problem of citizenship. The data has been focused on advocacy and intellectual works, including a literature review of statements of attitudes, published books, journals, research reports, and opinions in the national mainstream and alternative media.</p> 2019-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Syamsul Arifin, Nafik Muthohirin