Main Article Content
Abangan is one of the socio-religious groups regarded as a marginal community among the trichotomy of santri and priayi. It has been known that abangan were not religious Muslim, and they are poor farmers as well as workers, backward and less educated people. Meanwhile, santri are more religious and priayi among Javanese society are middle-class people practising syncretic Islam. The thesis on “The Religion of Java,” by Clifford Geertz, was more than a half-century indicated religious and social classification in Javanese society. In the midst of political polarization of Indonesian reformation, transnational Islamic groups began to establish their movement widely. Transnational Islamic groups that promote radicalism and violent extremism clearly avoid local wisdom and mysticism. As a result, abangan has experienced dramatic religious and social change. This study aims to see how to face radicalism after reformation in the social and religious transformation of abangan in Java. Previous studies have shown that the phenomenon of radicalism affects religious intolerance addressed to minority groups like abangan. This research paper aims to examine how abangan reacts to radicalism and engages with Sufism and their devotion to tarekat. Abangan recently appears to convert and join the tarekat movement as an alternative discourse to encounter modernism and religious radicalism.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
A’la, Abd. Genealogi Radikalisme Muslim Nusantara: Akar dan Karakteristik Pemikiran dan Gerakan Kaum Padri dalam Perspektif Hubungan Agama dan Politik. Surabaya, 2008.
Andaya, Barbara Watson and Ishii, Yoneo. “Religious Developments in Southeast Asia c. 1500–1800,” in Nicholas Tarling (ed.), The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Arberry, A. J. Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam. London: Routledge, 2013.
As’ad, Muhammad. “Ahmadiyah and The Freedom of Religion in Indonesia,” Journal of Indonesian Islam 18, no. 2, 2009, DOI: 10.15642/JIIS.2009.3.2.390-413.
Azra, Azyumardi. “Islam in Southeast Asia: Tolerance and Radicalism,” Miegunyah Public Lecture, 2005.
Azra, Azyumardi., Afrianty, Dina., and Hefner, Robert W. “Pesantren and Madrasa: Muslim Schools and National Ideals in Indonesia,” Schooling Islam: The Culture and Politics of Modern Muslim Education, 2007.
Baskara, Benny. “Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements,” DINIKA: Academic Journal of Islamic Studies 2, no. 1, 2017, DOI: 10.22515/dinika.v2i1.103.
Beatty, Andrew. “Adam and Eve and Vishnu: Syncretism in the Javanese Slametan,” Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain 2, no. 2, 1996, https://doi.org/10.2307/3034096.
Bellamy, James A. and Trimingham, J. Spencer. “The Sufi Orders in Islam,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 95, no. 1, 1975.
Bruinessen, Martin van. “Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in Post-Suharto Indonesia,” South East Asia Research 10, no. 2, 2002. https://doi.org/10.5367/000000002101297035.
Burhani, Ahmad Najib. “Geertz’s Trichotomy of Abangan, Santri, and Priyayi: Controversy and Continuity,” Journal of Indonesian Islam 11, no. 2, 2017, http://jiis.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/JIIs/article/view/556.
Davis, James A. “Structural Balance, Mechanical Solidarity, and Interpersonal Relations,” American Journal of Sociology 68, no. 4, 1963.
Durkheim, Emile. The Division of Labour in Society, ed. W.D. Halls. London: Macmillan Press, 1984.
Fauzan, Aris. “‘Ingsun’ Misteri Tasawuf Mistik Syekh Siti Jenar,” Afkaruna 8, no. 2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.18196/aiijis.2012.0010.119-134.
Fukuyama, Francis. “Social Capital, Civil Society and Development,” Third World Quarterly 22, no. 1, 2001, https://doi.org/10.1080/713701144.
Gaffar, Abdul. “Jamaah Ahmadiyah Indonesia (JAI) dalam Perspektif Kekerasan Negara: Dua Kasus dari Surabaya Jawa Timur dan Lombok NTB,” Jurnal Sosiologi Islam 3, no. 2, 2013, http://jsi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/jsi/article/view/37;
Geertz, Clifford. After The Fact: Two Countries Four Decades. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1995.
Haring, Hermann. “Mengatasi Kekerasan atas Nama Agama (Kristen dan Islam)” in Beuken et.al., Agama sebagai Sumber Kekerasan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 1997.
Hilmy, Masdar. “Akar-akar Transnasionalisme Islam Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI),” Islamica: Jurnal Studi Keislaman 6, no. 1 (2014, DOI: https://doi.org/10.15642/islamica.2011.6.1.1-13.
Houtart, Francois. “Kultus Kekerasan atas Nama Agama”, in Beuken, et.al., Agama sebagai Sumber Kekerasan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 1997.
Howell, Julia Day. “Sufism and the Indonesian Islamic Revival,” The Journal of Asian Studies 60, no. 3, 2001, https://doi.org/10.2307/2700107.
Mariani, Nina. “Ahmadiyah, Conflicts, and Violence in Contemporary Indonesia,” Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies 3, no. 1, 2013, https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v3i1.1-30.
Muhlisin, Ahmad. Syekh Siti Jenar: Ajaran, Jalan Kematian dan Perjuangan Mengislamkan Tanah Jawa. Yogyakarta: Araska, 2015.
Nicholson, Reynold A. The Mystics of Islam. London: Routledge, Kegan Paul, 1914.
Nugraha, Frenky Icksan. “Analisis Serat Suluk Syekh Siti Jenar,” FON: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia 14, no. 1, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.25134/fjpbsi.v14i1.2088.
Nurish, Amanah. “Muhammadiyah dan Arus Radikalisme,” Maarif 15, no. 2 (2019): 59–74.
-----. “The Myth of Religious ‘Radicalism,’” Al-Albab 9, no. 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24260/alalbab.v9i1.1546;
-----. Agama Jawa: Setengah Abad Pasca-Clifford Geertz. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2019.
Osman, Mohamed Nawab Mohamed. “The Transnational Network of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia,” South East Asia Research 18, no. 4, 2010, https://doi.org/10.5367/sear.2010.0018.
Ricklefs, M.C. “Rediscovering Islam in Javanese History,” Studia Islamika 21, no. 3, 2014, DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v21i3.1216.
Said, Azis A. and Funk, Nathan C. Toward Global Community: Sufism and World Order. London: Equinox Publishing, 2010.
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Mystical Dimensions of Islam,” Verfassung in Recht und Übersee 11, no. 4, 1978.
Sharma, Gauri. “Sufism: An Answer to Global Terrorism,” International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 5, no. 7, 2010.
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. “The Religion of Java,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 11, no. 2, 1963, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1152086%5Cn.
Umar, Ahmad Rizky Mardhatillah. “Melacak Akar Radikalisme Islam di Indonesia,” Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik 14, no. 2, 2010, https://doi.org/10.22146/jsp.10935.
Verter, Bradford. “Spiritual Capital: Theorizing Religion with Bourdieu against Bourdieu,” Sociological Theory 21, no. 1, 2003, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9558.00182.
Wahid, Din. “Sufism and the ‘Modern’ in Islam,” Studia Islamika 10, no. 3, 2003.