Main Article Content
Of all the various ideological controversies in the history of Islamic thought, one of the most highly contentious areas are those surrounding the ontological nature of the Divine attributes (Ṣifāt Allah). Such questions surrounding God’s attributes, and what delineation, if any, is to be made between the nature of God in his Divine attributes and in his Being (Dhāt Allah) preoccupied some of the greatest classical participants in the ‘ilm al-kalām systematic theological disputation tradition. This study engages Qur’ānic paradigms of theomorphic anthropology and re-interrogations by Sufi thinkers. There is a rich debate within Islamic Scholarship on the nature of the Divine attributes, and their interrelationship, if any, with Banī Adam. Many of the mystical Sufi scholars, such as Ibn ‘Arabī, Mūlla Sadra, Nāṣir Khusraw, and Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī all articulated onto-theological concepts in their writing that became known as Waḥdat al-Wujud, Tajallī Allah, Tajallī al-Nafs’ Nafs-e ‘Aql, and Nafs-e Kūl. This paper argues that the idea of Divine immanence articulated in concepts like ‘Tajallī al-Nafs’ is not a later retrojection onto Qur’ānic material. Rather it is the Qur’ānic material that exegeted with a meaningful and consistent hermeneutic resulted in their theosophical understandings.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Allen, Spencer. The Splintered Divine: A study of Ishtar, Baal, and Yahweh Divine Names and Divine Multiplicity in the Ancient Near East. Boston: de Gruyter, 2015.
Ansari, Abdul Haq. Ibn ‘Arabi: the Doctrine of Wahdat al Wujūd’, Islamic Studies, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1999.
‘Arabī, Ibn. The Meccan Revelations, trans. William Chittick, Vol. 1. New York: Pir Press, 2005.
-----. The Ringstones of Wisdom (Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam), trans. Caner Dagli. Chicago: Kazi Publications, 2010.
‘Ashā‘rī (al), Abū al-Ḥasan ‘Alī b. ‘Ismā‘īl. Maqālāt al-Islāmīyyīn. Beirut, LB: al-Maktabah al-Aṣrīyah, 1990.
‘Asqalānī (al), Ibn Ḥajar. Fatḥ al-Bārī: Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, Vol. 9. Beirut, LB: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīyah, 2009.
Bāyhaqī (al), Allah’s Names and Attributes, trans. Gibril Haddad. Fenton, MI: As-Sunnah Foundation of America 1999.
Chittick, William C. The Self-Disclosure of God. New York, NY: SUNY Press, 1998.
Darwīsh, Muḥy al-Dīn. I‘rāb al-Qur’ān al-Karīm, Vol. 1. Damascus: Dār al-Yamāmah, 2014.
Dögen, Ali Fakri. “An Outline of Qunawi’s Reflections of Divine Names in The of Oneness of the Being/Wahdat al-Wujud”, Mütefekkir, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 2014.
Fodor, Alexander. “A Group of Iraqi Arm Amulets: Popular Islam in Mesopotamia”, Quaderni di Studi Arabi, Vol. 5/6, 1988.
Ghazālī (al), Abū Ḥāmid. The Niche of Lights, A Parallel English-Arabic Text. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1998.
Ḥillī (al), Allāmah Jamāl al-Dīn. Sharḥ al-Bāb al-Hādī ‘Ashar. Anwar al-Hoda Publications, Qom: IR: 2012.
Lane, Edward William (ed.). An Arabic-English Lexicon: Derived from the Best and the Most Copious Eastern Sources, Vol. 5. n.d.: Nabu Press, 2009.
Māturīdī (al), Abū Manṣūr. Tā’wīlāt Ahl al-Sunnah, Vol. 1. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīyah, 2005.
Mir, Mustansir. “Some Figures of Speech in the Qur’ān”, Religion and Literature, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2008.
Rustom, Mohammed. The Triumph of Divine Mercy: Philosophy and Scripture in Mullā Sadra. Albany: SUNY Press, 2012.
Sadrā, Mulla. The Elixir of the Gnostics, trans. William Chittick. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press/the Islamic Translation Serious, 2003.
Sahl b. Abd Allah al-Tustarī, Tafsīr al-Tustarī: Great Commentaries on the Holy Qur’ān, trans. Annabel Keeler. Louisville: 2011.
Sommer, Benjamin D. The Bodies of God and the World of Ancient Israel. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Ṭabarī (al), Ibn Jarīr. Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī, Vol. 1. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīyah, 2014.
Takács, Axel. “Becoming the Word: Theosis in the Eucharist and the Qur’ān” Journal of Ecumenical Studies, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2011.
Taymīyah, Ibn. al-‘Aqīdah al-Wasaṭīyah. Riyadh, SA: Darussalam, 2009.
Véronèse, Julien. “God’s Names and Their Uses in the Books of Magic Attributed to King Solomon” Magic, Ritual, and Witchcraft, Vol. 5, No. 1, Summer 2010.