The Voice of the Ulema and Dilemma of the Indonesian Ulema Council’s Fatwa among Low Literate Society

Main Article Content

Fariz Alnizar
Achmad Munjid

Abstract

Some Islamic movements in Indonesia, which make the fatwas issued by the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) a reference for their actions, recently found their momentum after the defense movements called 411 and 212. The proponents of these movements are called Gerakan Nasional Pengawal Fatwa Majelis Ulama Indonesia (GNPF-MUI), which means The National Movement of the Guardians of the Indonesian Ulema Council’s Fatwa. By the employment of a qualitative approach coupled with a historical-causal paradigm, this article examines the main question, which asks if the proponents of these movements substantially understand the fatwas they defend. The results of the research showed that the fatwas held a dilemmatic position. While some movements have insisted on making them a “sacred opinion” that must be protected and guarded, people do not substantially comprehend the fatwas they defend. This problem is caused by the cultural basis of the Indonesian society, which put more preference on orality than literality or, explicitly, written tradition.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Alnizar, Fariz, and Achmad Munjid. “The Voice of the Ulema and Dilemma of the Indonesian Ulema Council’s Fatwa Among Low Literate Society”. Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 10, no. 1 (June 2, 2020): 74–96. Accessed August 7, 2022. http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1429.
Section
Articles

References

“Menjaga NKRI Bukan Soal Pilkada DKI” dalam http://www.belaquran.com/2016/12/

Agrama, Hussein a L I. “Ethics, Tradition, Authority,” American Ethnologist, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2010.

Ahyar, Muzayyin and Alfitri. “Aksi Bela Islam: Islamic Clicktivism and the New Authority of Religious Propaganda in the Millennial Age in Indonesia”, Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2019.

Akmaliah, Wahyudi. “When Islamism and Pop Culture Meet: A Political Framing of the Movie 212: The Power of Love,” Studia Islamika, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2020. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.36712/sdi.v27i1.920.

Alnizar, Fariz. “Pretext for Religious Violence in Indonesia: An Anthropolinguistic Analysis of Fatwas on Ahmadiyya”, Studia Islamika, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2019.

An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. Islam and the Negotiating the Future of Shari’a. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

-----. Islam and Secular State: Negotiating the Future of Shari’a. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Asad, Talal. Formations of the Secular. California: Stanford University Press, 2003.

Aspinall, Edward. “Democratization: Travails and Achievements,” in Robert W Hefner (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Indonesia. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Assyaukanie, Luthfi. “Fatwa and Violence in Indonesia,” Journal of Religion and Society, Vol. 11, 2009.

Azra, Azyumardi. “The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia: Networks of Malay-Indonesian and Middle Eastern ‘Ulama in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries”. University of Hawaii Press, 2004.

Bayyah, Abdullah bin Mahfuz bin. Sinā‘at al-Fatwā wa Fiqh Aqalliyāt. Beirut: Dār al-Minhāj, 2007.

Bunt, Gary R. Islam in the Digital Age: E-Jihad, Online Fatwas and Cyber Islamic Environments: Critical Studies on Islam. London: Pluto Press, 2003.

Burhanuddin, Jajat. “Islamic Knowledge, Authority and Political Power: The Ulama in Colonial Indonesia”. Leiden University, 2007.

Bush, Robin. “Religious Politics and Minority Rights during the Yudhoyono Presidency,” in Edward Aspinall, Marcus Mietzner, and Dirk Tomsa (eds.), The Yudhoyono Presidency: Indonesia’s Decade of Stability and Stagnation. Singapore: ISEAS, 2015.

Center, Alvara Research. “Survey Pola Keberagaman Umat Islam Indonesia”. Jakarta, 2017.

Dhofier, Zamakhsyari. “The Pesantren Tradition: The Role of the Kyai in the Maintenance of Traditional Islam in Java”. Arizona State University, 1999).

Fealy, Greg. “Http://Indonesiaatmelbourne.Unimelb.Edu.Au/ Bigger-than-Ahok-Explaining-Jakartas-2-December-Mass- Rally/,” 2018.

Fenwick, Stewart. “Eat, Pray, Regulate: The Indonesian Ulama Council and the Management of Islamic Affairs,” Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1017 /jlr.2018. 23.

Geertz, Clifford. “The Javanese Kijaji: The Changing Role of a Cultural Broker,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1960. https://doi.org/ 10.1017/S00104175000 00670.

Hasyim, Syafiq. “Fatwas and Democracy: Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI, Indonesian Ulema Council) and Rising Conservatism in Indonesian Islam,” TRaNS: Trans-Regional and National Studies of Southeast Asia, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1017/trn.2019.13.

Hayya The Movie, “Https://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=-Kw3lfjShuY,” 2018.

Heryanto, Ariel. Identitas dan Kenikmatan: Politik Layar Indonesia. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia, 2011.

Hooker, M. B. Indonesian Islam: Sosial Change through Contemporary Fatawa. Honolulu: University of Hawai Press, 2003.

Horikoshi, Hiroko. “A Traditional Leader in A Time of Change: The ‘Kijaji’ and ‘Ulama’ in West Java”. University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, 1976.

Hosen, Nadirsyah. “Behind the Scenes: Fatwas of Majelis Ulama Indonesia,” Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol. 2, No. 15, 2004.

Ichwan, Moch Nur and Noor, Nina Marinani. “Arah Baru Majelis Ulama Indonesia,” in Noorhaidi Hasan (ed.), Ulama dan Negara Bangsa (Yogyakarta: Pusat Pengkajian Islam, Demokrasi, dan Perdamaian (PusPIDeP), 2019.

Ichwan, Moch Nur. “Towards a Puritanical Moderate Islam: The Majelis Ulama Indonesia and The Politics of Religious Orthodoxy,” in Contemporary Developments in Indonesian Islam Explaining the “Conservative Turn”. Singapore: ISEAS, 2013.

Jamaa, La. “Fatwas of the Indonesian Council of Ulama and Its Contributions to the Development of Contemporary Islamic Law in Indonesia,” Indonesia Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v8i1.29-56.

Kaptein, Nico J.G. “The Voice of the `Ulamâ’: Fatwas and Religious Authority in Indonesia,” Archives de Sciences Sociales Des Religions, No. 125, 2004.

Mansurnoor, Iik Arifin. “Islam in an Indonesian World: Ulama of Madura”. Gadjah Mada University, 1990.

Masud, Muhammad Khalid., Messick, Brinkley., and Powers, David. Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and Their Fatwas, ed. Muhammad Khalid Masud, Brinkley Messick, and David Powers. London: Hardvard University Press, 1996.

Menchik, Jeremy. “The Politics of The Fatwa”. Boston, 2019.

Mietzner, Marcus and Muhtadi, Burhanuddin. “Explaining the 2016 Islamist Mobilisation in Indonesia: Religious Intolerance, Militant Groups and the Politics of Accommodation,” Asian Studies Review, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 10357823.2018.1473335.

Munjid, Ahmad. “High Demand for Symbols Drive ‘Islamic’ Black Market”,” Jakarta Post, December 6, 2018, http:// www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2018 /06/12/high-demand- for-symbols-drive-islamic-black-market.html.

Nasir, Mohamad Abdun. “The ʿUlamāʾ Fatāwā and Challenges to Democracy in Contemporary Indonesia,” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2014.926598.

Norris, Pippa and Inglehart, Ronald. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Prees, 2011.

Ong, Walter J. Orality and Litracy: The Technologizing of The Word. London and Newyork: Rouledge, 1982.

Sirry, Mun’im. “Fatwas and Their Controversy: The Case of the Council of Indonesian Ulama (MUI),” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 44, No. February, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1017 /S0022463412000641.

Suaedy, Ahmad. “Pengarusutamaan Fatwa-fatwa Moderat dalam Kebijakan Negara: Suatu Tantangan Baru”, in Syafiq Hasyim and Fahmi Syahirul Alim (eds.), Moderatisme Fatwa: Diskursus, Teori, dan Praktik. Jakarta: International Center for Islam and Pluralism (ICIP), 2018.

Turmudzi, Endang. Struggling for the Umma: Changing Leadership Roles of Kiai in Jombang, East Java. Australia: ANU Press, 1996.

Wahid, Abdurrahman. Melawan Melalui Lelucon. Jakarta: TEMPO, 2007

Zulkifli. “The Ulama in Indonesia: Between Religious Authority and Symbolic Power,” Miqot, Vol. XXXVII, No. 1, 2013.