Hādī al-‘Alawī and the Heterodoxy of Communo-Sufism

Main Article Content

Abdul Kadir Riyadi

Abstract

Sufism is time and again being associated with heresy as a result—among others—of a controversial thought by a man called Hadi al-‘Alawī with whom this paper is concerned. Using the concept of heterodoxy, this paper attempts to access the matrix of tensions and representations inherent within his so-called Communo-Sufism. It shows that as a communist, the first phase of his life, he looks at traditional Islam as a feudalized form of religion. It is a kind of natural betrayal to the genuine religiosity and spirituality represented by what he calls the “Jahili Islam”. In his view, the Jahili Islam is authentic and that Muhammad’s version of it is a sheer distortion of true Islam. The paper also tries to show that as a communist-sufi, the second phase of his life, he came up with a distinction between the “dead Islam” and the “living Islam”. The former is represented by traditionally Muslim faithful who adhere to Muhammad’s version of Islam. The latter, in the meantime, is the continuation of the Jahili-Islam. In al-‘Alawī’s discourse, Islam can only live on if it is based on the Jahili-Islam socially and legally. Theologically, Islam must be based on the Judeo-Christian traditions; philosophically on the Persian and Byzantine episteme; ideologically on Communism; and spiritually on Sufism. Vibrant as it may seem at the surface, his premises are nonetheless anarchistic and are an anti-thesis to the existing paradigmatic form of Islam.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
RiyadiAbdul Kadir. “Hādī Al-‘Alawī and the Heterodoxy of Communo-Sufism”. TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 10, no. 1 (June 1, 2020): 1-28. Accessed September 23, 2020. http://jurnalfuf.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/1411.
Section
Articles

References

‘Alawī (al), Ḥasan. Umar wa al-Tashayyu‘. Beirut: Dār al-Zurā, 2007.
‘Alawī (al), Hādī. al-Ightiyāl al-Siyāsī fī al-Islām. Damaskus: Dār al-Madā, 2008.
-----. Fī al-Islām al-Mu‘āṣir. Damaskus: Dār al-Madā, 1993.
-----. Fuṣāl ‘an al-Mar’ah. Damaskus: Dār al-Kunāz al-Adabīyah, 1996.
-----. Min Tārīkh al-Ta’dhīb fī al-Islām. Damaskus: Dār al-Madā, 1995.
Abisaab, Rula Jurdi and Abisaab, Malek. The Shi‘ites of Lebanon: Modernism, Communism and Hizbullah’s Islamists. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2014.
al-Marsafy, Ziad. Sufism in the Contemporary Arabic Novel. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press, 2012.
Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre JME. Religious Anarchism: New Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009.
-----. Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel. UK: Andrews, 2010.
Fakhry, Majid. A History of Philosophic Philosophy, 2nd Edition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.
Farouq-Sluglett, Marion and Sluglett, Peter. “The Historiography of Modern Iraq”, Journal of The American Historical Review. Vol. 96, No. 5, December 1991.
Geaves, Ron., Dressler, Markus., and Klinkhammer, Gritt (eds.). Sufis in Western Society: Global Networking and Locality. London & New York: Routledge, 2009.
Golestaneh, Seema. The Social Life of Gnosis: Sufism in Post-Revolutionary Iran. PhD Thesis--The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University, 2014.
Ḥusayn, Ṭāha. Fī al-Shi‘r al-Jāhilī. Tunis: Dār al-Ma‘ārif li al-Ṭibā‘ah, 1926.
-----. Mustaqbal al-Thaqāfah fī Miṣr. Kairo: Dār al-Naṣr, 2014.
Hussein, Iyad Khallaf. “al-Manhaj al-Māddī fī Dirāsat al-Fikr al-Islāmī: Hādī al-‘Alawī Namūdhajan”. PhD Thesis--University of Baghdad, 2007.
Janabī (al), Maytham. Hādī al-‘Alawī: al-Muthaqqaf al-Mutamarrid (Damaskus: Dār Mesopotamia, 2011.
Knysh, Alexander. Sufism: A New History of Islamic Mysticism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.
Latin, Mazin. Maḥattah min Ḥayāt Hādī al-‘Alawī. Baghdad: Dar Mesopotamia, 2013.
Lewis, Bernard. The Assassins: A Radical Sect in Islam. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1967.
Mason, Herbert W. al-Ḥallāj. London: Routledge, 1995.
Massignon, Louis. The Passion of al-Ḥallāj, trans. Herbert Mason. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Muruwwah, Ḥusayn. al-Naz‘āt al-Mādīyah fī al-Falsafah al-‘Arabīyah al-Islāmīyah. Beirut: Dār al-I‘lām al-Arabī, 1986.
Ridgeon, Lloyd (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Sufism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Riyadi, Abdul Kadir. Arkeologi Tasawuf: Melacak Jejak Pemikiran Tasawuf dari al-Muhasibi hingga Tasawuf Nusantara. Bandung: Mizan, 2016.
Scharbrodt, Oliver. “The Salafiyyah and Sufism: Muhammad Abduh and His Risalah al-Waridat”, in Bulletin of Oriental and African Studies, Feburary, vol 70, issue 1, 2007.
Spencer, Robert. The Truth about Muhammad. USA: Regnery, 2006.
Tejel, Jordi et al. Writing the Modern History of Irak: Historiographical and Political Challenges. New Jersey: World Scientific, 2012.