Drama Ilahi: Membaca Kronologi Wahyu Alquran

Authors

  • Munirul Ikhwan Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15642/mutawatir.2020.10.2.202-238

Keywords:

kronologi wahyu, tindakan Tuhan, latar kesejarahan manusia, drama ilahi

Abstract

Kronologi wahyu adalah salah satu topik paling rumit dalam studi Alquran karena Alquran pada awal kemunculannya tidak berwujud mushaf yang tertata rapi, namun muncul dari rangkaian refleksi ‘tindakan Tuhan’ dalam latar kesejarahan tertentu manusia yang merespon beragam isu sosial keagamaan. Bertolak dari studi-studi terdahulu, artikel ini mengulas kronologi wahyu dengan menempatkan Alquran dalam konteks sejarah karir Nabi Muhammad. Studi ini mengambil penekanan yang berbeda dari teori kronologi yang ada yang utamanya bertumpu pada analisis gaya bahasa Alquran dalam kaitannya dengan psikologi Nabi, atau dari teori kronologi yang dibangun berdasarkan urutan (sequence) gagasan keagamaan. Dengan membaca ulang teori kronologi yang ada, studi ini berargumen bahwa upaya rekonstruksi kronologi wahyu harus didasarkan pada bangunan sejarah dialektika Alquran dengan audiens pertamanya. Studi ini melihat kronologi wahyu sebagai “drama ilahi” yang merefleksikan komunikasi dialektik antar berbagai aktor yang terangkum dalam teks yang kemudian diimani sebagai kalam Allah. Dengan demikian, studi ini menekankan bahwa dasar kronologi wahyu adalah rangkaian kejadian masa formasi Islam, sementara analisis terhadap gaya bahasa Alquran memainkan peran pendukung.

The chronology of revelation is one of the most complicated topics in Qur’anic studies because the Qur’an at its initial emergence did not appear as a neatly arranged codex, but emerged from a series of reflections on the 'acts of God' in a particular setting of human history responding various socio-religious issues. Departing from some previous studies, this article examines the chronology of revelation by situating the Qur’an within the historical context of the Prophet Muhammad’s career. This study takes a different emphasis from existing chronological theories which primarily rely on the analysis of linguistic styles of the Qur’an in their relation to the psychology of the Prophet, or from those which are built on the order of religious ideas. By revisiting the existing chronological theories, this study argues that any effort to build a chronology of revelation must be based on the historical formation of the Qur’an’s dialectics with its first audience. This study sees the chronology of revelation as "divine drama" which reflects dialectical communication between various actors summarized in a text which is later believed to be the word of God. Thus, this study emphasizes that the basis of the chronology of revelation is a series of events during the formation of Islam whereas the analysis on the linguistic styles of the Qur’an plays a complementary role.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abū Zayd, Naṣr Hamid. Mafhūm al-Naṣṣ: Dirāsat fī ‘Ulūm al-Qur’ān. Kairo: Al-Hay’ah al-Miṣrīyah al-‘Āmmah li al-Kitāb. 1990.

———. “The Dilemma of the Literary Approach to the Qur’an.” Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, vol. 23 (2003).

Ahmed, Shahab. Before Orthodoxy: The Satanic Verses in Early Islam. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Al-Azmeh, Aziz. The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Badawī, ‘Abdurraḥmān. Difā’ al-Qur’ān ḍidda Muntaqidīh. Giza: Al-Dār al-‘Ālamīyah li al-Kutub wa al-Nashr, 2015.

Bell, Richard. Introduction to the Qur’ān. Edinburg: The Edinburg University Press, 1953.

Boewering, Gerhard. “Chronology and the Qur’ān.” Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an. Diedit oleh Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Vol. 1. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2003.

Cook, Michael. “Eschatology and the Dating of Tradition.” Ḥadīth: Origins and Developments. Diedit oleh Harald Motzki. London & New York: Routledge, 2016.

Darwaza, Muḥammad ‘Izzat. Al-Tafsīr al-Ḥadīth. ed. ke-2. 10 vol. Beirut: Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī, 2000.

Donner, Fred M. Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writings. ed. ke-2. Princeton: The Darwin Press, 1999.

Gilbert, Felix. “What Ranke Meant.” The American Scholar, vol. 56, no. 3 (1987).

Grimme, Hubert. Mohammed: Einleitung in den Koran, System der koranischen Theologie. Münster: Aschendorffsche Buchhandlung, 1895.

Hallaq, Wael B. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Harawī (al), Abū ‘Ubayd al-Qāsim b. Sallām. Al-Nāsikh wa al-Mansūkh fī al-Qur’ān al-‘Azīz. ed. Muḥammad b. Ṣāliḥ al-Muḍayfir. Riyad: Maktabat al-Rushd, t.t.

Hirschfeld, Hartwig. New Researches into the Composition and Exegesis of the Qur’an. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1902.

Hurvitz, Nimrod. “The Mihna (Inquisition) and the Public Sphere.” The Public Sphere in Muslim Societies. Diedit oleh Miriam Hoexter, Shmuel N. Eisenstadt, Nehemia Levtzion. New York: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Ikhwan, Munirul. “Legitimasi Islam: Sebuah Pembacaan Teoritis Tentang Wahyu Alquran.” Mutawatir: Jurnal Keilmuan Tafsir Hadith, vol. 10, no. 1, (2020).

Izutsu, Toshihiko. “Revelation as a Linguistic Concept in Islam.” Studies in Medieval Thought, 5 (1962).

Jābirī (al), Muḥammad ‘Ābid. Fahm al-Qur’ān al-Ḥakīm. 3 vol. Casablanca: Dār al-Nashr al-Maghribiyah, 2008.

Madigan, Daniel A. The Qur’ân’s Self-Image: Writing and Authority in Islam’s Scripture. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2001.

———. “Book.” Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an. Diedit oleh Jane Dammen McAuliffe. vol. 1. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2003.

Masrukhin, Mohammad Yunus. Menjadi Muslim Moderat. Jakarta: OAAI, 2020.

Al-Mehri, A.B. (ed). The Qur’an: With Surah Introductions and Appendices. Birmingham: Maktabah Booksellers and Publishers, 2010.

Mubarakpuri, Safiur Rahman. Al-Raḥīq al-Makhtūm. Mansoura: Dār al-Wafā’, 2010.

Naḥḥās (al), Abū Ja‘far Aḥmad. Al-Nāsikh wa al-Mansūkh fī Kitāb Allāh. Diedit oleh Sulaymān b. Ibrāhīm al-Lāḥim. 3 vol. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 1991.

Naysābūrī (al), Abū al-Qāsim al-Ḥasan b. Ḥabīb. “Al-Tanzīl wa Tartībuh.” Diedit oleh Nūra b. ‘Abdullāh al-Warthān. Majallat Jāmi’at al-Mālik Sa‘ūd, vol. 14, no. 2 (2002).

Neuwirth, Angelika. “Referentiality and Textuality in Sūrat Al-Ḥijr (QS. 15): Observations on the Qur’anic ‘Canonical Process’ and the Emergence of a Community.” Literary Structures of Religious Meaning in the Qu’ran. Diedit oleh Issa J. Boullata. New York: Routledge, 2000.

———. “Structure and the Emergence of Community.” The Blackwell Companion to the Qur’ān. Diedit oleh Andrew Rippin. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2006.

———. Scripture, Poetry and the Making of a Community: Reading the Qur’an as a Literary Text. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

———. “The ‘Discovery of Writing’ in the Qur’an: Tracing an Epistemic Revolution in Late Antiquity.” NUN: Jurnal Studi Alquran dan Tafsir di Nusantara, vol. 2, no. 1 (2016).

Nöldeke, Theodor, Friedrich Schwally, Gotthelf Bergsträßer, dan Otto Pretzl. The History of the Qur’ān. Diterjemahkan oleh Wolfgang H. Behn. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2013.

Powers, David S. “The Exegetical Genre Nāsikh Al-Qur’ān Wa Mansūkhuhu.” Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur’ān. Diedit oleh Andrew Rippin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Rippin, Andrew. “The Exegetical Genre ‘Asbāb al-Nuzūl’: A Bibliographical and Terminological Survey.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 48, no. 1 (1985).

———. “The Function of ‘Asbāb al-Nuzūl’ in Qur’ānic Exegesis.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 51, no. 1 (1988).

———. “Occasions of Revelation.” Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an. diedit oleh Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Vol. 3. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2003.

Saeed, Abdullah. Interpreting the Qur’an: A Contemporary Approach. London & New York: Routledge, 2006.

Ṣāliḥ (al), Ṣubḥī. Mabāhith fī ‘Ulūm al-Qur’ān. Beirut: Dār al-‘Ilm li al-Malāyīn, 1977.

Sirry, Mun’im. Kemunculan Islam Dalam Kesarjanaan Revisionis. Yogyakarta: Suka Press, 2017.

Suyūṭī (al), Jalāl al-Dīn. Al-Itqān fī ‘Ulūm al-Qur’ān. 4 vol. Kairo: Dār al-Turāth, 1985.

———. Lubāb al-Nuqūl fī Asbāb al-Nuzūl. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Kutub al-Thaqāfīyah, 2002.

Ṭabarī (al), Abū Ja‘far Muḥammad b. Jarīr. Jāmi‘ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl Āy al-Qur’ān. Diedit oleh ‘Abdullāh b. ‘Abd al-Muḥsin al-Turkī. 24 vol. Kairo: Dār Hajar, 2001.

Wāḥidī (al), Abū al-Ḥasan ‘Alī b. Aḥmad. Asbāb al-Nuzūl. Kairo: Maṭba‘ah Hindīyah bi Ghaiṭ al-Nūbī, 1898.

Wansbrough, John. Qur’anic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation. New York: Prometheus Books, 2004.

Watt, William Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 1953.

———. Bell’s Introduction to the Qur’an. ed. ke-5. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994.

Weil, Gustav. “An Introduction to the Quran. III.” Diterjemahkan oleh Frank Sanders and Harry W. Dunning. The Biblical World, vol. 5, no. 5 (1895).

Zarkashī (al), Badr al-Dīn. Al-Burhān fī ‘Ulūm al-Qur’ān. Diedit oleh Muḥammad Abū al-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. 4 vol. Kairo: Dār al-Turāth, 2000.

Downloads

Published

2020-12-15

How to Cite

Ikhwan, M. (2020). Drama Ilahi: Membaca Kronologi Wahyu Alquran. Mutawatir : Jurnal Keilmuan Tafsir Hadith, 10(2), 202–238. https://doi.org/10.15642/mutawatir.2020.10.2.202-238

Issue

Section

Articles
| Abstract views: 174 ,